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The article deals with the research of sculptor Karlis Zemdega's (1894-1963) diaries consisting of ten notebooks found in the Latvian State Archive and written from 1910 to 1926. Zemdega's texts are not uniform; they were not created on a regular basis and for various reasons. Not all his diaries are in the possession of the Archive. These aspects also determine how the texts can be used in the study of Zemdega's art. The early diaries contain undifferentiated accounts of events but later entries show the peasant boy's and developing artist's self-communion and emotional reflections increasing in importance. In general these texts are self-addressed records of events, impressions and experiences, sometimes a conversation with himself, sometimes with an imagined or real companion. The earlier texts reveal reflections on the beauty of nature, sensibility and emotionality, vitality and energy important for the developing artist's sense of life. Notes relating the feelings and reflections on the initial steps in drawing and painting are important. Texts provide a certain insight into Zemdega's youth experiences of relationships with brothers and sisters; he assesses the importance of his parents' farmstead and rural environment in shaping his sense of life. One should stress the emotionally sharp notes of 1911 and 1912 written in Konigsberg hospital where the young man was treated for osseous tuberculosis and had his leg amputated when he was only eighteen. This personal drama largely conditioned the development of his personality, the chosen way of life and modes of self-realisation. In general the diary texts can be interpreted as revealing subjective truth, expressions of the strained and intensive spiritual life of a romantically inclined person. The notes made during his student days expose the budding sculptor's difficult path towards his individual style. Sad loneliness and melancholic reflections are found alongside a quite active and sociable lifestyle.
The contribution focuses on Callenberg missionaries and their Jewish sources. After a first look into the literary documents, which the 'studiosi' presumably read, the author tries to analyze the images of Judaism the authors of the Diaries are conveying to their readers.
One of the crucial types of sources used in the research on old age and the social and physical condition of old people are diaries. This article explores sixteenth-century diaries and chronicles of burghers from Wroclaw (Breslau), Swidnica (Schweidnitz) and Nysa (Neisse). The analysis concerned two issues: the authors' reflections on their own aging and the descriptions of their relationships with old people from the close circle. As to the latter topic, the most interesting data were found in the diary by Daniel Scheps, a doctor from Swidnica, written in the years 1574-1608. Scheps diaries contain several dozen mentions about elderly people, noted down, as can be inferred, in order to record unusual events. Those mentions indicate what age was considered the borderline between maturity and senility at that time, and to what extent people were aware of their own age in various social groups. The diary also provided some data on illnesses and the causes of old people's deaths. The diaries analyzed confirm historians' and demographers' findings as to the differences in old people's living conditions dependent on their sex. They also partly confirm previous findings on the significant share of old people in authorities.
Content available remote Legionárske spomienky, zápisníky a denníky
The authors of the contribution focused on diaries and recollections of the Austrian-Hungarian troops members, captured at different fronts in World War I (in Serbia, Russia, and Italy), who later joined the Czechoslovak volunteer armed forces - the Czechoslovak legions. On an example of recorded memories of French legionnaire A. Sima, Italian legionnaire V. Valnicek and Russian legionnaire A. Sikura, the authors explain the circumstances at the time when World War I broke out, the moods and opinions of inhabitants, the mobilisation and leaving for the front, the baptism of fire at the fronts, the trials and horrors of war. Their diaries demonstrate clearly, how they as private soldiers and the civil inhabitants experienced the apocalyptic moments brought by the worldwide conflict to the proximity of the fronts and the rear, their everyday life and the importance of the memories of their relatives at home and of the rare correspondence with them. As immediate witnesses of significant political and military events from 1914-1918, when the future fate of Czechs and Slovaks and their common state - the Czechoslovak Republic - was decided, they provide a conclusive picture of those difficult times. Their records from war years, which were completed and even printed later, helped to keep the essential and even less essential experiences from that period in individual mind of their relatives and in collective mind of the nation. Frequently, they give also the historians, military historians, ethnologists and other experts very detailed and from other sources unknown information.
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