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Study aim: the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 3 mg and 5 mg per kg of body weight of caffeine on heart rate, blood pressure and shooting performance among elite shooters. Material and methods: sStudy participants comprised 8 male shooters among athletes at the national level with at least 2 years of experience, with the mean age (26.50±13.08 years), weight (73.02 ± 12.2 kg), height (174.62 ± 8.97 cm) and BMI (23.93 ± 2.88 kg/m2). The blood pressure and heart rate of all participants were measured at rest. Participants then randomly took caffeine (3 mg and 5 mg per kg of body weight) or placebo for 3 different days, 2 days apart. One hour after ingestion, they shot with rifle and air pistol. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA with repeated measures and the Bonferroni test. Results: the results of the survey showed that taking 5 mg/kg of caffeine caused a significant increase in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and also caused a significant increase in heart rate (p < 0.05) and a significant decrease in shooting performance (p < 0.05). Moreover, taking 3 mg/kg of caffeine caused a significant increase in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). But this amount of caffeine had no significant effect on the heart rate, diastolic blood pressure or shooting performance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: the results of this study suggest that taking 5 mg/kg of caffeine can increase the blood pressure and heart rate of the shooters that leads to a decrease in shooting performance.
Content available remote School children systolic and diastolic blood pressure values: YUSAD study
The aim of the study was to analyze changes of systolic and diastolic blood pressure values over five and ten years separately boys and girls and to estimate correlation between them. Three age groups from 8 centers in Serbia were evaluated: Group 1: 10 year old patients, Group 2: 15 year old and Group 3: 20 year old. Group with normal blood pressure values, prehypertensive and hypertensive group were analyzed. Regarding the period of follow-up we analyzed: 10/15 years period-children between 10 and 15 years, 15/20 years period-children between 15 and 20 years, and 10/20 years period-children between 10 and 20 years. Significant increase of diastolic blood pressure was noticed for both genders in 10/15 years period of prehypertensive population, while in hypertensive children, boys showed decline in frequency for systolic and diastolic blood pressure and girls only for diastolic. In 15/20 years period there was significant decrease of prehypertensive and significant increase of hypertensive diastolic blood pressure frequency. In 10/20 years period significant reduction in frequency of prehypertensive systolic blood pressure was noticed, while only hypertensive group of boys showed significant reduction regarding systolic blood pressure frequency. Prehypertensive diastolic and hypertensive systolic blood pressure fluctuations are more related to age.
Objectives: The present study focused on analysing the relationship between body composition and blood pressure in children and adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 1025 schoolchildren between 3 and 21 years of age (519 boys and 506 girls). The systolic blood pressure (SBP, mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mmHg) were measured with the Visomat Comfort 20/40 arm tensiometer. The following body composition variables were studied: height (m), weight (kg), body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), fat mass (FM; % and kg), fat-free mass (FFM; % and kg), Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/m2), Fat Free Mass Index (FFMI; kg/m2), total body water (TBW; % and kg), waist (cm), hip (cm), Waist/Hip Ratio (WHR), basal metabolism (BM, Kcal/day). The body composition was evaluated using the Tanita BC 418-MA body composition analyzer, the height was measured with a HM-250P Leicester stadiometer, and the waist and hip perimeter were measured with a tape measure. The statistical analysis was carried out with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 23.0. Findings: SBP and DBP were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with all the body composition variables studied, with the exception of the relationship between WHR and DBP. The correlations were positive between blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and the following body composition variables: height, weight, BMI, FM (kg and %), FMI, FFM (Kg), FFMI, TBW (Kg), waist, hip, WHR, and BM. The correlations were negative between blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and the following body composition variables: FFM (%) and TBW (%). Conclusions: The body composition and blood pressure of children and adolescents are closely related, so intervention programs through physical activity to improve body composition would be also an appropriate strategy to reduce the risk of hypertension.
Study aim: To compare the effects of 6-week isokinetic and isotonic training programmes on heart rate and blood pressure in high school students.Material and methods: Twenty-nine healthy, untrained male student subjects aged 15 - 18 years participated in the study. They were assigned into 3 groups: control (C; n = 11), and subjected to isokinetic (IK; n = 8) or isotonic (IT; n = 10) training lasting 6 weeks, 3 days a week. Isokinetic exercises consisted of 3 sets of 20-s extensions/flexions (both knees) at 180°/s, spaced by 30-s intermissions, the isotonic ones - of 4 sets of extensions (both knees) at 50% of the predetermined one repetition maximum, spaced by 30-s intermissions. Heart rates (HR) and blood pressure were determined before and after the training period, both pre- and post-exercise.Results: Mean resting HR and exercise-induced HR-increase significantly decreased post-training in IT group (by 19 and 24%, respectively; p<0.001). The exercise-induced HR-increase significantly increased post-training in IK group (by 17%; p<0.001). Significant (p<0.01) training-induced decreases in the systolic pressure (SBP) were found in both training groups (IT and IK, by 7 and 6%, respectively).Conclusions: The results may be of practical importance for athletes and health professionals who administer openchain resistance exercises.
Content available remote Quantifying pharmacodynamic interaction between atenolol and valsartan
We used mathematical modeling in order to determine the pharmacodynamic relationship between antihypertensive drugs atenolol and valsartan, by evaluating their effects on heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SP) and diastolic blood pressure (DP). A group of twelve healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of 100 mg of atenolol and 160 mg of valsartan, both separately and in combination. Pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) and pharmacodynamic (PD) systems were proposed and PD model of atenolol and valsartan concentration-time profiles and PK/PD model of blood pressure and heart rate effects after administration of single doses of atenolol and valsartan and their combination were constructed. Parameters of PD system, such as gain and mean effect time, were obtained by analysis of PK and PK/PD systems. Modeling of PK and PK/PD systems and their analysis to obtain the PD results could considerably change the view o treatment of individual diseases in terms of greater knowledge of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs.
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