A thermodynamic lattice theory has been developed for determination of the melting curves and eutectic points of binary alloys. Analytical expressions for the melting curves of binary alloys composed of constituent elements with the same structure have been derived from expressions for the ratio of root mean square fluctuation in atomic positions on the equilibrium lattice positions and the nearest neighbor distance. This melting curve provides information on Lindemann’s melting temperatures of binary alloys with respect to any proportion of constituent elements, as well as on their eutectic points. The theory has been applied to fcc and bcc structure. Numerical results for some binary alloys provide a good correspondence between the calculated and experimental phase diagrams, where the calculated results for Cu1−x Nix agree well with the measured ones, and those for the other alloys are found to be in a reasonable agreement with experiment.