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EN
The petition comprises five separate proposals, including a petition for the establishment of a tenant supervision institution, for the introduction into the Act of Petitions of a provision obliging the legislator to consider any petition that meets formal requirements. The author is critical of the proposals for unrelated legislative changes postulated in the petition. They are difficult to implement, unfounded, inconsistent with the current legal order and sometimes also unconstitutional. They harm media freedom, the right to petition and the freedom of churches and religious associations to manage cemeteries.
EN
The author discusses the basic assumptions of the planned regulation of the professional artist’s status in Polish legal system, including: the establishment of the Polish Chamber of Artists, the rules and method of confirming and verifying the status of a professional artist, and defining the rights of these artists. The author states that in order to achieve the ratio legis of the Bill, the regulations of the act should guarantee the full independence, impartiality of the Chamber’s activities and the possession of expert competences by the members of the Council of the Polish Chamber of Artists.
EN
In the author’s opinion the instruments proposed in the bill may fail to fulfil their task in terms of solution of the housing problem among young people. On the contrary, it can speed up depopulation of small and middle-sized towns. The bill may have unfavourable economic and social consequences on the housing market and also a negative impact on the finances of gminas (communes). The author points out that granting housing allowances to the young adults without housing problems is contrary to the principle of economic prudence.
EN
The Paris Agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change became a direct incentive to The EU 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policy adoption. The contributions of the EU and Member States to the fulfilment of commitments stemming from the Paris Agreement were defined the EU 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policy. The Paris agreement has also initiated the review process of European Union legislation and submission of proposals for a discussion aimed at amending EU law in order to fulfil the Paris Agreement commitments. Thus, the aim of the study is to present the impact of the Paris Agreement on EU climate an energy policy and to analyse the main directions of proposed amendments of EU law regulations aimed at implementing the global commitments that the EU made in Paris in December2015. It is also an attempt to assess these proposals. The new EU provisions will in the long term become a directional determinant for national regulations.
PL
Porozumienie paryskie do Ramowej Konwencji Narodów Zjednoczonych w sprawie zmian klimatu stało się bezpośrednim bodźcem do przyjęcia Ramowej polityki klimatyczno-energetycznej do roku 2030, w której sformułowano wkład UE i państw członkowskich w realizację zobowiązań wynikających z Porozumienia paryskiego. Porozumienie paryskie „zainicjowało” też proces przeglądu prawodawstwa unijnego i przedstawiania (dyskutowania) propozycji jego zmian mających doprowadzić do wykonania postanowień Porozumienia. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wpływu Porozumienia paryskiego na zmianę polityki klimatyczno-energetycznej UE po 2020 r., a także analiza głównych kierunków projektowanych zmian unijnych regulacji prawnych zmierzających do wdrożenia globalnego zobowiązania UE podjętego w Paryżu w grudniu 2015 r. oraz próba oceny tych propozycji zmian. Wdrożenie tego globalnego zobowiązania UE nastąpić ma przede wszystkim przez zmianę aktów prawa unijnego tworzących tzw. pakiet klimatyczno-energetyczny do 2020. Nowo przyjęte akty prawa unijnego zaś w dalszej perspektywie staną się wyznacznikiem kierunku regulacji krajowych.
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Content available Liberalizacja zasad budowania farm wiatrowych
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EN
In the author’s opinion, the relaxation of the rules on the construction of wind farms should lead to an increase in investment in this area. However, the author recognises the risk of protests from local communities concerned about the potential health, environmental and landscape effects of the construction of wind farms.
EN
The author gives a positive assessment of the bill introducing a legal basis for undertaking environmental improvement measures in large-scale degraded areas. According to her, the Act will allow for faster and more effective rehabilitation of post-industrial areas. The bill contains shortcomings related to the protection of property rights, but they do not contradict the Constitution. The implementation of the Act will result in the imposition of additional tasks on local government units, the implementation of which may require additional resources.
EN
The main assumption of the Bill is to reduce the phenomenon of drought. The Bill may contribute to slowing down the outflow of water, water retention in the catchment area, retention of rainwater, protection of aquatic animal species. However, in the author’s opinion, the Bill may at the same time raise doubts, as it may threaten the achievement of other important objectives of the Water Law and other acts. The proposed changes may, inter alia, negatively affect the efficient conduct of administrative proceedings in the field of water management investments, including the development of water energy. The proposed regulations may threaten the protection of life, health, safety of the community against floods, and the achievement of EU renewable energy targets.
EN
The Act of 20.07.2017 – Water Law, which entered into force on January 1, 2018, introduced a change in the organizational and legal structure, as well as the division of public authorities’ tasks and competencies, regarding water management. A new structure was established – the State Water Farm “Polish Waters” (PW). PW is a unified institutional structure, which replaced, as a rule, the authorities that previously operated in the area of water management, and focused a wide group of specialized and profiled tasks and competencies in that area. Several types of tasks and competencies in the area of water management that had previously been dispersed among many authorities and entrusted, in large part, to general public authorities were brought together. The aim of this article is to analyze the selected tasks and competencies in the field of water management that were brought together in PW’s hands, i.e., issuing of water law permits and adjudicating on matters that require highly specialized knowledge regarding water management and which can occur in other proceedings. The article aims to show that while these changes undoubtedly may be important for streamlining and accelerating the investment process in the area of water management, the existence of certain ambiguities, imprecision and inconsistency between the rules, may result in problems for the authorities and for the investors obliged to use them. Therefore, the degree to which the intended effects are achieved may be smaller. It is also reasonable to introduce additional regulations.
PL
Ustawa z 20.07.2017 r. – Prawo wodne, która weszła w życie 1.01.2018 r., wprowadziła zmianę struktury organizacyjno-prawnej oraz podziału zadań i kompetencyjnej organów właściwych w sprawach gospodarowania wodami. Powołana została nowa struktura – Państwowe Gospodarstwo Wodne „Wody Polskie” (WP). WP są ujednoliconą strukturą instytucjonalną, która zastąpiła co do zasady dotychczasowe organy działające w obszarze gospodarowania wodami i skupiła szeroką grupę wyspecjalizowanych i sprofilowanych zadań i kompetencji z tego obszaru. Skoncentrowaniu uległo kilka rodzajów zadań i kompetencji w obszarze gospodarowania wodami dotychczas rozproszonych pomiędzy wieloma pomiotami i powierzonych w dużej części ogólnym organom administracji publicznej. Celem artykułu jest analiza wybranych zadań i kompetencji z zakresu gospodarki wodnej, które uległy koncentracji: wydawanie zgód wodnoprawnych oraz skoncentrowanie w rękach WP rozstrzygania zagadnień wymagających wysoko wyspecjalizowanej wiedzy z zakresu gospodarowania wodami występujących w innych postępowaniach. Artykuł zmierza do wykazania, że choć zmiany te niewątpliwie mogą mieć istotne znaczenie dla usprawnienia i przyspieszenia przebiegu procesu inwestycyjnego w obszarze gospodarowania wodami, występowanie pewnych niejednoznaczności, nieprecyzyjności w relacji pomiędzy przepisami, ich wzajemna niespójność przysporzyć mogą organom i inwestorom zobowiązanym do ich stosowania problemów, a przez to stopień osiągnięcia zamierzonego skutku może być mniejszy. Zasadne jest też rozważenie wprowadzenia dodatkowych regulacji.  
EN
The article analyses the provisions of the Polish law regulating various forms of nature conservation, authorised organs, and instruments of nature conservation. The act of 16 April 2004 regulates the goals, principles, and forms of protecting the flora and fauna, inanimate nature, and landscape. According to the legislator, a form of nature conservation is a legal institution serving to achieve goals related to nature conservation. Such a form involves isolating a particular object (area, landmark, species) that is distinguished by some features, declaring it as protected, attributing to it a special legal regime in which it is strongly prohibited to act to the detriment of this object, and determining criminal liability for infringement of such prohibitions. The latest comprehensive regulation in this area is embodied by provisions associated with the area of Natura 2000. However, the overlap of competences that arise from these regulations makes it difficult to undertake investments, which are vital for the development of areas that enjoy special status.
PL
Upływ ponad dziesięciu lat od rozpoczęcia funkcjonowania systemu EU ETS oraz upływ trzech lat od rozpoczęcia już trzeciego okresu rozliczeniowego tego systemu nałożył się z okresem pogłębiającego się kryzysu (określanego nawet załamaniem) tego systemu, coraz częściej powtarzanymi wątpliwościami odnośnie do tego, czy system ten jest zdolny osiągnąć nałożony na niego cel, czy nie powinien zostać zastąpiony innym instrumentem. Brak było i jest jednak nadal pomysłów na nowy instrument umożliwiający redukcję emisji zanieczyszczeń w sposób skuteczny i efektywny ekonomicznie, który mógłby zastąpić obecny system EU ETS. Wraz z upływem ponad dziesięciu lat od rozpoczęcia funkcjonowania tego systemu oraz upływem trzech lat od rozpoczęcia już trzeciego okresu rozliczeniowego systemu EU ETS rozpoczęły się zatem intensywne prace nad strukturalną reformą tego systemu. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie aktualnego stanu prac w zakresie reformy systemu EU ETS, wskazanie głównych kierunków i celów tych zmian, a także podjęcie próby ich oceny.
EN
Currently, it has followed a lapse of over ten years from the beginning of already the EU ETS scheme functioning and three years from the beginning of already the EU ETS scheme third accounting period, which has coincided with a period of deepening crisis (or even breakdown) of the scheme, there even appear to be more and more frequent doubts as to is capable to achieve aims imposed on it, whether the system should not have been replaced by another instrument. Currently, however, there are no ideas supporting a new instrument enabling emissions reductions in an economically effective way, which could replace current the EU ETS scheme. Therefore, together with over ten years passing since the beginning of the EU ETS scheme’s functioning and three years passing since the beginning of the EU ETS scheme’s third accounting period, intensive works regarding structural reform of this scheme was started. Thus, the aim of the study is the analysis of current stage of works regarding EU ETS scheme’s reform, pointing of main directions and aims of planned changes, as well as attempting to assess of thereof.
EN
The publication of the conclusions of the best available techniques for large combustion plants has raised interest in this issue not only among administrative bodies and entities operating installations that are subject to these conclusions. The energy sector is a strategic area, from the point of view of the entire economy and state policy. The functioning of this sector (and the obligations imposed on it) has an impact on many other areas of the economy and social life. The purpose of this article is to analyze the consequences of the adoption – and primarily of the publication of – the conclusions (as of when they become binding) regarding the best available techniques for large combustion plants (that is, the changes in the environmental and legal situation of the installations covered by these conclusions, and as a consequence the obligations resulting from this fact for administrative bodies and entities running specific installations). This article also aims to outline the consequences of the delayed or improper implementation of the abovementioned obligations (both for the EU Member States and the operator conducting the installation).
PL
Opublikowanie konkluzji dotyczących najlepszych dostępnych technik dla dużych obiektów energetycznego spalania wywołało zainteresowanie tym zagadnieniem nie tylko wśród organów administracji i podmiotów prowadzących instalacje podlegające tym konkluzjom. Sektor energetyczny należy bowiem do obszarów strategicznych z punktu widzenia całej gospodarki i polityki państwa. Funkcjonowanie tego sektora (obowiązki na niego nakładane) ma wpływ na wiele innych dziedzin gospodarki i życia społecznego. Celem tego artykułu jest analiza skutków wynikających z przyjęcia, a przede wszystkim opublikowania (z tym momentem nabierają one mocy wiążącej) konkluzji dotyczących najlepszych dostępnych technik dla dużych obiektów energetycznego spalania, tj. zmiany sytuacji środowiskowoprawnej funkcjonowania instalacji objętych tymi konkluzjami, a w konsekwencji obowiązków wynikających z tego faktu dla organów administracji oraz podmiotów prowadzących określone instalacje. Ponadto w artykule zarysowano następstwa nieterminowej lub nienależytej ich realizacji (zarówno dla państwa członkowskiego UE, jak i przedsiębiorcy prowadzącego instalację).
EN
The aim of this article is analysis of one of the barriers to the functioning of procedures for authorization, certification and licensing of RES investments - lack of coordination in actions of the public administration authorities while conducting those procedures, both in the context of EU law, as much national laws of selected Member States. Why this barrier is still dominant? The article is devoted to analysis of possible and applied models for such coordination in the area of RES investments. Attention has also been drawn to restrictions which should be taken under consideration by Member States while the regulations regarding procedures coordination implementing. Constructing and applying of coordination of public administration authorities activities in such a way as it might contribute to streamlining and accelerating administrative procedures in the area of RES investments and consequently achieve a designated RES energy share in the final gross energy consumption, is not an easy task. Inappropriately constructed and applied mechanisms may lead to an exactly opposite effect
EN
Specialized authorities in the field of environmental protection have existed since the beginning of the creation of the system of organization of environmental services and the amount of them has been steadily widening. This has been particularly evident in case of nature conservation law which is a part of environmental law. The fact of existence of authorities having specialized knowledge is particularly important in the context of new environmental tasks resulting from the implementation of European Union legal norms often using professional knowledge. The purpose of this article is to present the specialized authorities functioning in the field of nature conservation, the scope of taking advantage of their professional knowledge potential. The article also aims at taking of trial of assessment of adopted regulations accuracy concerning the division of tasks and competences of public authorities with regard to administration of forms of nature  conservation, as well as presenting de lege ferenda comments aiming at nature conservation tasks performing more effectively.
EN
The passage of more than a decade since the system was introduced and 3 years since the beginning of the third trading period (Phase 3) has coincided with a period of aggravating crisis (referred to even as a breakdown) and recurring doubts as to whether the system is capable of achieving the desired goal or perhaps it should be replaced with another instrument. However, no concept of such an instrument has been proposed yet, which would enable harmful emissions to be reduced efficiently and cost-effectively instead of the current EU ETS. Ten years after the launch of the system and three years into Phase 3, intensive work started on a structural reform of the EU ETS. The aim of this article is to give account of the state of research in the reform, present the principal directions and objectives, and to provide an evaluation.
EN
The authors analyse the European Commission’s proposal to activate the so-called ‘money for the rule of law’ mechanism against Hungary. It recommends to the Council of the EU to withhold 65% of EU funds to Hungary for the implementation of three operational programmes under the cohesion policy. As a direct consequence of the proposal, there could be a debate in the EU Council on the merits of imposing EU budget protection measures on Hungary. The proposed EU budget protection measures are considered to contain phrases that are evaluative in nature. They therefore require strict interpretation. The Government of the Republic of Poland expressed a negative position regarding the adoption of the Commission’s proposed implementing decision.
EN
The purpose of the paper is to identify difficulties connected with the performance by Chief Inspector of Environmental Protection of the tasks defined in the Order No 1013 2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council dated 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste. It is claimed that international shipment of waste in the form of vehicle is illegal. The lack of clarity and accuracy of the regulations of substantive law concerning determination of CHIEP’ tasks in that field (especially in the context of the absence of binding guidelines for legal interpretation of these regulations) results in an uncertainty regarding accuracy of the judicial proceedings and decision recognising a damaged vehicle transported across the border as waste. This, in consequence, increases the risk of a breach of the constitutional ownership right, as well as the probability of allegation of improper implementation of the European Union law. Some alternative ways in which waste may be transported have been offered.
PL
Artykuł ma na celu zwrócenie uwagi na trudności związane z wykonywaniem przez Głównego Inspektora Ochrony Środowiska (GIOŚ) obowiązków ciążących na tym organie na podstawie rozporządzenia nr 1013/06 Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady z 14 czerwca 2006 r. w sprawie przemieszczania odpadów, tj. w zakresie stwierdzenie, że międzynarodowe przemieszczanie odpadów w postaci pojazdu ma charakter nielegalny, i określenie sposobu postępowania z tym odpadem. Brak jasności i precyzyjności przepisów prawa materialnego w zakresie określenia zadań GIOŚ w tym zakresie (w kontekście braku szczegółowych wiążących wytycznych interpretacyjnych), powoduje „niepewność” co do prawidłowości prowadzonego postępowania i wydanego rozstrzygnięcia w sprawie uznania uszkodzonego pojazdu przewożonego przez granicę za odpad. Zwiększa to ryzyko naruszenia konstytucyjnego prawa własności, ale też prawdopodobieństwo zarzutu nienależytej implementacji unijnych norm prawnych przez organy administracji publicznej.
PL
This publication attempts to present comprehensively the principal legal acts that oblige the EU and all its Member States to secure favourable conservation sta-tus of the wolf population, as well as international legal acts regarding that issue . It also emphasizes the obligation to protect the ecological continuity between the places these carnivores inhabit . It should be pointed out that the existing publica-tions on the EU and international wolf protection regulations are limited to the two undoubtedly most important acts: the Bern Convention and the Habitats Directive .
PL
In view of the fact that about 80% of the wolf ’s population in Europe is of cross-border type, the conservation status of a particular wolf ’s population depends on the sum of the states national regulations sharing the population.The Polish national regulations thus have an impact upon the protection of three wolf ’s populations in Europe. They should thus become an object of interest also at the international forum. This article presents the broad-based Polish system of administrative and legal regulations of wolf ’s protection aimed at accomplishment of international and EU obligations. Poland, due to the relatively advanced level of legal protection of the wolf, may play a substantial role in restoring the population of this carnivore to the territories of many western European countries (the process already initiated through the presence of Polish wolves in Germany).
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