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The residues of fluvalinate accumulated in the wax promote the selection and development of Varroa jacobsoni resistance to fluvalinate activity. Probably Varroa jacobsoni will be resistant to other acaricidal synthetic pyrethroids (due to cross-resistance). The possibilities of using for honey-bee protection the inserted to hives strips, containing known pesticides, such as amitraz, malathion and bromfenvinphos, which have different, than synthetic pyretroids, mode of biological action, and which are suitable to overcome fluvalinate resistant mites were tested in Poland. The high varroacidal effectiveness of the strips with above mentioned pesticides during 6 weeks exposition was found. However, amitraz, at the concentration of 5% in PVC strip, was decomposed after 5 months of storage. Malathion at the same concentration is not quite safe for bees. The promising results with bromfenvinphos incorporated in PVC strip (5%), as well as in the form of microlayer (50-60 mg a.i.) on PE strip were obtained (the average varroacidal effectiveness achieved 99%). The dorsal bromfenvinphos apitoxicity LD50 was 7310 ng/bee.
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly exposed to contact with many types of pathogens. However, during evolution they developed a number of immune mechanisms. At the individual level, they comprise 1) resistance mechanisms associated with anatomical and physiological barriers of the body, 2) cell-mediated immunity involving hemocytes (including plasmocytes, lamellocytes, and granulocytes), 3a) congenital humoral resistance related to the activity of lysozyme (N-acetylmuramylhydrolase), the prophenylooxidase system (ProPO) and hemagglutinins (lectins), and 3b) induced humoral resistence based on the action of antimicrobial peptides: apidicines, hymenoptecin, and defensins. In addition to the individual resistance of each bee, there is also a defense mechanism activated at the colony level. Shared secretion resistance is connected with the presence of antipathogenic compounds in secreta and in bee products. Social immunity is associated with hygienic and nursing behaviors, as well as with age polyethism in the colony, swarming (and the emergence of rebel workers), and the changing behavior of sick individuals. Many aspects and interactions between different types of resistance and immunity still remain unexplored. However, current research trends revolve around clarifying uncertainties so as to strengthen the natural resistance of bees and fight against pathogens that threaten the insects.
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