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In our previous studies, we showed that a finasteride-induced DHT deficiency may cause changes in the morphology of the seminiferous epithelium without any morphological alteration of the epididymis. In this study, we demonstrated the constitutive immunoexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the testis and epididymis of Wistar rats treated with finasteride for 28 days (the duration of two cycles of the seminiferous epithelium) and 56 days (the duration of one spermatogenesis). We noted that a 56-day finasteride treatment mainly caused a decrease in the level of circulating DHT, as well as a statistically insignificant decrease in the level of T. The hormone deficiency also led to a change in the iNOS immnoexpression in the testis and epididymis of the finasteride-treated rats. In vitro, DHT did not modify NO production by the epithelial cells of the caput epididymis even when stimulated with LPS and IFNγ, but it did give rise to an increase in NO production by the epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis without the stimulation. DHT did not have a statistically significant influence on estradiol production by cultured, LPS- and IFNγ-stimulated epithelial cells from the caput and cauda epididymis. In conclusion, our data clearly indicates that a finasterideinduced DHT deficiency intensifies the constitutive expression of iNOS in most rat testicular and epididymal cells, so it can be expected that the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could be regulated by DHT. On the other hand, the profile of the circulating DHT and T levels strongly suggests that the regulation of constitutive iNOS expression is complex and needs more detailed study.
The study was performed on six male chinchillas. The animals were anaesthetised with ether and the anaesthesia was deepened with nembuthal injected intraperitoneally. The chinchillas were then transcardially perfused with 0.4 L of 4% buffered paraformaldehyde, and testes, epididymides, and vasa deferentia were collected. The tunica albugínea from one testis from each chinchilla was stained as whole-mount preparation. The tissues were cut into 12 µm-thick cryostat sections, and processed for double-immunofluorescence method. In all organs studied, the most abundant nerve fibres were dopamine ß hydroxylase positive (DßH⁺). Some of them contained neuropeptide Y (NPY). Sporadically NPY-positive-only nerve fibres were found. Single DßH⁺ nerve terminals contained also galanine. Small numbers of the nerve fibres supplying studied organs were stained for substance P (SP) and calitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). Almost all SP⁺ fibres were also CGRP⁺, whereas single CGRP⁺ nerves were SP- immunonegative. Some nerve terminals were immunoreactive to vesicular acetylcholine transporter and vasoactive intestinal peptide. The organs studied were innervated unevenly. The highest density of the nerves was found in the areas of the tunica albuginea adjacent to the mesorchial border of the testis and their number gradually decreased towards the free border of the gonad. None of the vascular tissue of the testicular parenchyma was free of the nerve fibres, except sporadically encountered DßH⁺ nerves which supply seminiferous tubules. Within the head of the epididymis a moderate number of nerve terminals were found, but in the body and tail of the organ the number of nerves gradually increased. The vas deferens was supplied with very numerous nerve fibres. There were no differences in the density of the innervation between the funicular and abdominal part of the vas deferens.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are used in high doses by athletes to improve athletic ability, physical appearance, and muscle mass. Unfortunately, the abuse of these agents has significantly increased. It has been established that exercise and high doses of AAS may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (H-P-G) axis, which can in turn affect the ultrastructure of the testes. However, the effect of the combination of exercise and high doses of AAS on the ultrastructure of the testes is not known. This study was undertaken in order to examine the combination effects of swimming exercise and supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate on the ultrastructural changes in rat testes. Five groups of male Wistar strain albino rats were treated as follows for 8 weeks: solvent of nandrolone decanoate (peanut oil) as a vehicle (sham); nandrolone decanoate (ND) (10 mg/kg/week) — ND; exercise (1 h/day, 5 days a week) — exercise; ND (10 mg/kg/week) and exercise (1 h/day, 5 days a week) — ND-EX; and sedentary control without any injection or exercise — control. Ultrastructural changes in the rat testes were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. The number and size of Leydig cells were considerably decreased in the interstitial space in the experimental rats. The increased thickness and irregular wavy multilaminar appearance of basement membrane in the treated animals, especially in the ND-EX group, are associated with well developed myoid cells. Cytoplasm vacuolisation, vesicular-like crista of the mitochondria, numerous lipid droplets, and lysosome and phagolysosome in Sertoli cells were significantly observed in the experimental groups. Several apoptotic germ cells were considerably observed in the experimental rats (p ≤ 0.05). Exercise training seems to increase the extent of ultrastructural changes caused by supraphysiological doses of ND in rats, which in turn may affect fertility. (Folia Morphol 2010; 69, 3: 138–146)
The aim of the study was to compare the terminal parts of testicular artery topography in human and bovine gonads. The study was made on two extremely different types of location of the mediastinum testis. The investigation was carried out on 80 (40 human and 40 bovine) corrosive casts of the testicular arteries. The differences between the species, including the different course of the testicular artery inside the spermatic cord and in the posterior margin of the gonads, were observed. The division of the testicular artery into terminal branches was located in men on the level of the mediastinum testis, and in bulls close to the inferior end of the gonad. The types of terminal division were similar in both groups. In men, the testicular artery course inside the spermatic cord was more variable than in bulls. The artery was straighter, and in 75% of the cases it did not form the loops which were present in 100% of the bovine specimens. The bovine testicular artery in the posterior margin of the testis was longer and had a more variable course than in men. (Folia Morphol 2009; 68, 4: 271–276)
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields ELF-EMFs generated by 170 kV (50 Hz) high power lines on the epididymal sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters testosterone levels and histopathology of testis. The experimental group consisted of 28 adult male rats placed in an cottage 7.5 m far from transfer lines transferring 170 kV (50 Hz) energy. They were randomly divided into four groups of 7 rats’ each. Group 1, 2 and 3 were exposed continuously (24 hr) to ELF-EMF (48.21 ± 1.58 mG) for 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. The rats of group three served as the control and were placed in laboratory conditions without a magnetic field. Insignificant (p > 0.05) decreases were determined among the groups in terms of reproductive organ weights, testes dimensions and epididymal sperm concentration and sperm motility, and an insignificant increment was observed in abnormal sperm rates in relation to the varying periods of exposure to the ELF-EMF. Although marked reductions (p < 0.001) were observed among the groups in relation to plasma and testis catalase activity, depending on exposure time, no significant differences were found in terms of glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. In the light of Johnsen’s testicular biopsy score the mean scores of groups 1, 2, 3 and control were determined as 9.24 ± 0.08, 8.02 ± 0.12, 6.98 ± 0.11 and 9.88 ± 0.07, respectively. Histopathology examinations of testis revealed a deceleration of spermatogenesis and degeneration of germ cell order in relation to exposure time.
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