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Cardiovascular complications, including stroke, may be attributed the highest rate of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of CKD in patients with symptomatic ischaemic cerebrovascular disease and to establish of whether CKD may define a particular risk pattern of cerebral vessels modifications in this category of patients. The prevalence of CKD was evaluated in 590 consecutive patients with symptomatic ischaemic cerebrovascular disease admitted to a department of neurology. The types of stroke, the vascular territories, the vascular modifications and the haemodynamic changes (resistance index- RI) found by neurosonology (extracranial and transcranial Doppler ultrasound) were analysed in relation to classic and non-classic cerebrovascular risk factors, as well as to stages of CKD (defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate-eGFR-MDRD4 formula-K/DOQI 2002). The prevalence of CKD in the studied patients was 70.84%. Atherosclerosis in a diffuse pattern was detected in 79.7% of CKD patients, while carotid artery stenoses were found in 10% of cases, occlusions- 5.3%, stenoses + occlusions-1.2%, and multiple stenoses- 3.8% of cases. The RI evaluated in the internal carotid arteries correlated with fibrinogen(P<0.0001) and GFR(P<0.0001), while IR in the middle cerebral arteries correlated with fibrinogen(P<0.05), C-reactive protein(P<0.0001), and GFR(P<0.0001). There is a strong relation between symptomatic cerebrovascular disease and CKD, a fact demonstrated by the increased prevalence of CKD in these patients and by the severity of the cerebral vessels lesions.
Content available remote Predictors of diabetic nephropathy
Open Medicine
tom 8
nr 3
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients representing a huge health and economic burden. Alarming recent data described diabetes as an unprecedented worldwide epidemic, with a prevalence of ∼6.4% of the world population in 2010, while the prevalence of CKD among diabetics was approximately 40%. With a clinical field hungry for novel markers predicting DN, several clinical and laboratory markers were identified lately with the promise of reliable DN prediction. Among those are age, gender, hypertension, smoking, sex hormones and anemia. In addition, eccentric left ventricular geometric patterns, detected by echocardiography, and renal hypertrophy, revealed by ultrasonography, are promising new markers predicting DN development. Serum and urinary markers are still invaluable elements, including serum uric acid, microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (u-LFABP), and urinary nephrin. Moreover, studies have illustrated a tight relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and the development of DN. The purpose of this review is to present the latest advances in identifying promising predictors to DN, which will help guide the future research questions in this field. Aiming at limiting this paramount threat, further efforts are necessary to identify and control independent modifiable risk factors, while developing an integrative algorithm for utilization in DN future screening programs.
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