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2
Content available Józef Edward Dutkiewicz (1903-1968)
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Jozef Edward Dutkiewicz has been distinguished from among art historians and conservators of the generation of the 20th century by the versatility of his theoretical and practical skills and his artistic and scientific interests. He formed his life around the fine arts: as an artist painter and as an art historian, as a conservator of monuments involved in the field of the protection of cultural property and as a conservator of paintings working at the easel and on scaffolding, as organizer of the Department of Conservation of Works of Art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow and as a teacher of the younger generation of art conservators, as co-creator of the Commitee of Theory and History of Art at the Division of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow and as author of publications on historical and contemporary art. He chose his main profession to be that of conservator,serving in 1939 as conservator of monuments successively in Warsaw, Łuck and Lublin. The Lublin years (1936-1939) were particularly fruitful, when he initiated and carried out for the first time the restoration of monuments of the city centre of Lublin, Zamość and Kazimierz on the Vistula. During the war, employed as a painter conservator at the Muzeum in Tarnow, he worked on medieval paintings and sculpture. After the war, he organized the Museum of the Tarnow District from collections of old manors. He also took part in the protection of monuments in Silesia. In 1946- 1951, he was conservator of the monumente of the Cracow voivodeship and the city of Cracow. In 1948 he established and headed the editing of the conservation magazine "Ochrona Zabytkow" (Monument Protection), with the exception of the interval 1951 -1961. From 1949 he gave lectures on the theory of art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow, where he was shortly appointed associate of conservation and where he organized and headed as dean the Department of Conservation of Works of Art, in the newly established Academy of Art (transformed in 1956 into the Academy of Fine Arts). After 1960 he became dean of the School of Conservation of Works of Art at the Department of Painting of the Academy of Fine Arts and this post he held, with the exception of the academic years 1956-1957 and 1960-1961, until his tragic death in 1968. From 1951 he headed the Institute of Conservation of Wall Paintings, and in the years 1962-1965 he was also head of the Institute of Conservation of Easel Paintings and Polychrome Wood Sculpture. He manifested his scientific approach to matters of conservation of works of art in the establishment and expansion of the servicing chemical and physical workshop and by drawing into cooperation representatives of the Cracow Technical University and the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy. He changed work as conservator for team work subordinated to the requirements of scientific cognition and calling for laboratories of the highest technical level. In all his activities Dutkiewicz was an authority. His sudden departure has been felt as a painful loss among conservationists and art historians. His vision, looking into the future, has remained a basic canon of conservation conduct, in spite of the changing aesthetic assumptions.
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According to W.J.T. Mitchell the problem of relations between word and image should be re-defined, as all arts, as well as contemporary media are mixed: they consist of text and image. The pure independence of word form the image or the other way around is utopian and impossible. It is therefore a mistake to compare what is painted with literary text, even if such instances take place. We should rather search for the kind of textuality that is demonstrated (or latent) by the painting and in the name of which values.
Vox Patrum
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2008
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tom 52
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nr 2
1223-1230
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Koppemik (Diozese Oppeln) ist der Ort, aus dem die Vorfahren von Nikolaus Kopernik stammten. Der Ort ist auch von dem Kult des heiligen Nikolaus, des Bischofs von Myra bekannt. Die Kirche des heiligen Nikolaus in Kóppemik wurde schon im 13. Jh. erwahnt. In dem Hauptaltar der heutigen neugotischen Kirche bęfindet sich das Gemalde, auf dem der heilige Nikolaus ais Bischof dargestellt ist. Das ist der Typ einer reprasentativen Darstellung.
EN
The reason for studying the paintings by Xawery Dunikowski was the conservation and restoration of six canvases from the large set of works by this artist, conducted by the Institute for the Conservation of Paintings and Polychromed Sculpture. The examined compositions included three canvas paintings, one collage, and two paintings on plywood, featured in the Królikarnia Branch of the National Museum in Warsaw. One of the plywood paintings was executed on both sides. Despite numerous conservation undertakings performed in the course of recent years, and encompassing not only the paintings under discussion but also the whole Królikarnia collection, so far no publications has discussed the conservation, technical construction, and execution technology of works by X. Dunikowski. The purpose of the presented operations was to offer basic knowledge which in the future will facilitate all sorts of ventures focused on the conservation, restoration and prophylactic protection of the artist’s oeuvre. The research has made possible a technical and technological analysis and an examination of the state of the preservation and conservation of the works of this prolific artist. At the same time, methods which could serve as a basis for the conservation of his whole oeuvre have been devised. The selection of paintings involved an attempt at creating a set which would present damage typical for all the Dunikowski paintings. The titular conservation and restoration posed a number of problems caused primarily by the artist’s approach to his workshop. The majority of the damage is the result of an incorrect choice of material. Certain sources indicate that Dunikowski relegated all technical issues to the sidelines, and apparently was unconcerned with the durability of his works. At the very outset, therefore, we should ask about the extent to which one should interfere in cases such as this, and the range of the ensuing conservation, as evidenced by the intense discussion about the unusual appearance of the painting entitled Abstract Composition with a Skull. It would be difficult to ascertain unambiguously whether the uneven canvas around the cardboard attached with stiff glue is the effect of the lengthy impact of atmospheric factors. Equally controversial proved to be the purposefulness of gluing and supplementing damaged corners in the Portrait of a Daughter (obverse) and the Portrait of a Girl (reverse). Since the artist painted the portraits on an already damaged base, such an undertaking would not be tantamount to a restoration of the original state, but constitute a creation. Ultimately, it was decided to opt for moderation in restoring the state of the monument according to our vision of its original condition. Certain technical and aesthetic problems are posed by the exposition of this two-sided painting, since the obverse had been executed across the rectangular plywood, and the reverse – longitudinally. The above considered examples of complex problems prove that in this particular case conservation was by no means routine. This experience made it possible to once again heighten our awareness of the fact that the conservation and restoration of modern art remain an open issue, and that questions which only at first glance appear to be of minor importance actually call for individual treatment.
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Content available remote Wpływ zaburzeń widzenia barwnego na twórczość wybitnych malarzy
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Contemporary Polish essays on paintings and photographs (by, e.g. Z. Herbert, G. Herling-Grudziński, W. Karpiński, J. Pollakówna, E. Bieńkowska, A. Olędzka-Frybesowa, and W. Nowicki) are juxtaposed with the personal essay which was invented by Montaigne. A wide range of commentaries, including ideas about this genre which were expressed by Th. W. Adorno, G. Lukács, and G. Douglas Atkins, provide a theoretical background for the analysis. Selected Polish texts are presented as artistic constructions that recreate the process of experiencing pictures and the movement of thoughts of the essayistic “self” which uses many disguises (e.g. a traveler, amateur, scholar and critic). A particular painting or photo, which is often artfully described by means of ekphrasis, is treated by essayists as a starting point for analyzing many broader issues as well as for indirect self-presentation.
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Saint Apollonia was a saint somewhere in the early ages, therefore little is known about her life. What we do know, however, is that she was a Catholic nun and lived in Alexandria at the end of the III century. During the uprising against the Christians which took place in Alexandria, she had her jaw broken as well as her teeth smashed, thereafter, she was burned alive. Consequently, the ruthless and extremely painful tortures performed on Saint Apollonia quickly became the topic of a number of graphics, paintings and sculptures. In the following work the authors discuss only a few of the paintings in which Saint Apollonia is depicted.
PL
Wiedza o życiu św. Apolonii jest niewielka. Wiadomo, że mieszkała w Aleksandrii pod koniec III wieku. Była katolicką zakonnicą. Podczas pogromu chrześcijan w Aleksandrii torturowano ją, połamano jej szczękę i powybijano wszystkie zęby, a następnie spalono na stosie. Jej męczeńska śmierć na długo stała się tematem wielu grafi k, obrazów olejnych i rzeźb. W pracy autorzy omawiają tylko niektóre obrazy ukazujące świętą.
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Content available remote FACES OF ART: Witkacy: Portrait Company – Its Rules and Regulations
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In 1925, Witkacy established his sole proprietorship Portrait Company “S.I. Witkiewicz”, which was run in accordance with particular regulations. Six out of seven types of portraits were designed for a broad clientele. He drew several thousand pictures of artists, doctors, officials, teachers, officers, bankers and industrialists. Basic prices ranged from 100 to 350 zloty, although the company also reduced prices to as little as 25 zloty for a portrait. Pictures of whole figures were more expensive, while individual portraits differed with respect to the degree of idealization, faithfulness or deformation of the portrayed person. Portrait type C, which was produced under the influence of stimulants, was excluded from commissions, had no price in the rules and regulations and was essentially intended for friends. The basic prices of the company’s portraits were relatively high in comparison to the cost of basic everyday items of necessity and even luxury products. Over the years, and despite changes to the colour of the paper, the portraits have maintained their enormous impact.
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The article is an attempt of analysis of Włodzimierz Tetmajer’s chosen works concerning the harvest. I am also describing images of the harvest on the Polish village of Kamionka, being in surroundings of Chełm, which I remembered from the childhood. I am appealing to reality of the myth of the happy village, current in Polish painting and literature. I am taking it back to observed remains of folk customs and the traditions bond with the harvest.
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Content available remote OBLICZA SZTUKI: Witkacy: Firma Portretowa i jej regulamin
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W 1925 roku Witkacy założył jednoosobową Firmę Portretową „S.I. Witkiewicz”, w ramachktórej wykonał kilka tysięcy wizerunków artystów, lekarzy, urzędników, nauczycieli,oficerów czy bankierów i przemysłowców. Firma funkcjonowała w oparciu o regulamin.Sześć z siedmiu typów portretów przeznaczonych było dla szerokiej klienteli. Podstawoweceny wahały się od 100 do 350 złotych. Firma stosowała obniżki nawet do 25 złotych zaportret. Wizerunki całej postaci były odpowiednio droższe. Poszczególne portrety różniłysię stopniem idealizacji, wierności lub deformacji portretowanego. Z zamówień wyłączonybył typ C, wykonywany pod wpływem używek, niemający swojej ceny w regulaminie,a przeznaczony zasadniczo dla przyjaciół. Podstawowe ceny portretów firmowych byłydość wysokie, o czym świadczy ich porównanie zarówno z cenami artykułów pierwszejpotrzeby, jak i towarów luksusowych. Po latach portrety nadal zachowują ogromną siłęoddziaływania, pomimo zmian kolorystyki papieru.
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The album of works by Zbigniew Szczepanek, depicting 41 castles in northern Poland, contains more than 200 water colours, gouaches, pastels and drawings executed in 1999-2003. The warm hues, reader-friendly poetic and excellent technical level of the publication render it particularly attractive. The elegant album, in hard cover and a decorative box, includes an Englishand German-language translation and a map of northern Poland with likenesses of the portrayed castles. The album ends with notes concerning the illustrations (also translated), offering data about the technique, material, and size of the compositions, as well as describing the presented fragment of a given castle and, in the case of reconstruction, the foundation for its realisation. This indubitably interesting and well-composed album is the first in a planned three-volume series about the castles of Poland. The publishers – Tower Press – ensured a meticulous edition.
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Content available remote Fałszerstwo doskonałe - Vermeer i Meegeren
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PL
Fałszerstwa dzieł sztuki od zawsze są olbrzymim problemem w świecie sztuki. Powody fałszerstw mogą być różne, począwszy od korzyści materialnych po chęć zemsty. I właśnie ten ostatni powód był głównym motorem działania Han van Meegerena, którego obrazy uważano za oryginalne dzieła Jana Vermeera. Meegeren sprzedał co najmniej 6 podrobionych prac Vermeera oraz kilka dzieł innych twórców. Han van Meegeren dołożył wielu starań, by jego prace zostały uznane za wiarygodne, wymagało to od niego wielu prób i cierpliwości. Musiał dobrać odpowiednie podłoże, używać podobnych substancji, podobnej techniki malowania, czy uzyskać odpowiednie postarzenie wierzchnich warstw obrazu, ale ostatecznie osiągnął sukces. Najwięksi ówcześni znawcy nie mieli wątpliwości uznając te dzieła za prawdziwe. Dopiero po odkryciu schowanych skradzionych obrazów Vermeera dostrzeżono błędy w ocenie autentyczności. Przeprowadzono kolejne analizy, które pozwoliły na odkrycie prawdy. Do metod stosowanych w analizie obrazów należą przede wszystkim testy chemiczne i mikrochemiczne, spektroskopia, spektrografia oraz badania ultrafioletem i w podczerwieni. Za pomocą mikroskopu można określić „starzenie się” wierzchnich warstw farby, oraz zbadać pigmenty. Ultrafiolet pozwala wykryć, czy pod obrazem był wcześniej namalowany inny obraz. Z kolei spektroskopia daje możliwość zbadania pigmentów, spoiw, klei i werniksów i ustalenie w jakim stopniu łączą się z konkretną epoką.
EN
The history of the Department of the Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art at the Academy of Fine Arts dates back to the establishment on 4 September 1947 of a Study for the Conservation of Monuments of Painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw. The initiator and greatest adherent of this undertaking was Michał Walicki, historian of art and lecturer at the Academy from 1931. The Study was supervised directly by the Rector of the Academy, and contained two Chairs dealing with the Conservation of Painting and Painting Techniques. The head of the latter and the Study as a whole was prof. Edward Kokoszko, and the head of the Chair for the Conservation of Painting was prof. Bohdan Marconi. Both professors had at their disposal extensive knowledge and considerable conservation experience. Already in 1936, prof. Kokoszko acted as the organiser and head of one of the first Polish workshops for painting techniques and conservation, which was set up in the Warsaw-based Municipal School of the Decorative Arts and Painting, while prof. Marconi, prior to his work in the Academy of Fine Arts, directed a Conservation Workshop in the National Museum and a State Workshop for the Conservation of Painting, located in the building of the Zachęta Gallery, and conducted by the Main Management of Museums and the Protection of Historical Monuments, which conserved i.a. the Battle o f Grunwald by Jan Matejko. In 1950, the two higher art schools in Warsaw — the Academy of Fine Arts and the State Higher School of Fine Arts — became merged into an Academy of Plastic Arts (a name retained until 1957). The new academy established nine departments, including the Department of Conservation, the outcome of the expansion of the heretofore Study which now gained new specializations. The Dean of the Department was prof. Edward Kokoszko, and after his resignation in January 1951, the post was entrusted to prof. Bohdan Marconi. The Department of Conservation was composed of five specializations: conservation of painting (prof. Bohdan Marconi), conservation of decorative arts (prof. Jozef Grein), conservation of sculpture (assistant prof. Jan Ślusarczyk), conservation of graphic arts (prof. Bonawentura Lenart) and the conservation of murals (assistant prof. Karol Dąbrowski). Furthermore, the Department held courses and lectures on the history of art, the history and theory of conservation, hand-drawn perspective, technology, physics and chemistry, drawing, painting and sculpture. Unfortunately, in 1952, the development of conservation studies at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts was halted for many years. First the department was transformed once again into a Study, and then in 1964 — into a Chair for Conservation within the Department of Painting. This last event coincided with the retirement of prof. Marconi, who exerted an essential impact on the heretofore image of conservation in the Warsaw Academy. The Department of the Conservation of Works of Art was reactivated as late as 1972, and its Dean was docent Juliusz Bursze. The Department embarked upon the creation of new chairs, institutes and workshops as well as work on new curricula. The need to increase the number of staff members proved to be particularly urgent. The attainment of a complete form by the Department was favoured by a move to an historical building in 37 Wybrzeże Kościuszkowskie, regained by the Academy in 1975. The building was originally erected in 1914 for the needs of the School of Fine Arts thanks to funds provided by the Kierbedź family and according to a design by the architect Alfons Gravier. During the inter-war period, it was the seat of the Academy of Fine Arts. The first to be moved to the retrieved building was the conservation of painting and polychromy sculpture, and then the remaining workshops of the Department. The move took place during the term of office of the new Dean, Adam Roman. In the 1976/1977 academic year, the Department of the Conservation of Works of Art included already four chairs and one institute. The Chair for the Conservation of Painting and Polychromy Sculpture was headed by Juliusz Bursze, the Chair for the Conservation of Old Prints and Graphic Art — by Tadeusz Tuszewski, and the Chair for the Conservation of Sculpture and Architectonic-Sculpted Elements — by Adam Roman. The three conservation chairs were accompanied by the Chair for General Art Training headed by Stefan Damski. The whole structure was supplemented by the Institute of Chemistry, Physics and Special Photography, directed by Daniel Tworek. The post of Dean was held successively by Juliusz Bursze, Piotr Rudniewski, Jerzy Nowosielski, Wojciech Kurpik and, at present, Andrzej Koss. In 1981, the further expansion of the Department led to the establishment of a Chair for the Conservation and Techniques and Technology of Murals, and in 1992 — the Chair for the Conservation and Restoration of Historical Fabrics. In 1988, the Department introduced a six year-long course of studies. Up to the end of 1996, conservation studies at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw were completed by 445 students. The Department enjoyed a well-grounded position among other departments of the Academy, and two of its professors had the honour to fulfil the function of Rector: prof. Juliusz Bursze in 1982-1984, and prof. dr. Wojciech Kurpik (at present). The Department of the Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw also occupies a permanent place among similar centres in Poland and abroad.
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