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EN
Empirical evidence is growing which shows that social capital contributes to economic development on local and regional scales, and is an ubiquitous component and determinant of progress in many kinds of development projects and an important tool for poverty reduction. Today, the importance of social capital for the economy is undisputed. Many scientific papers have been written on this subject but missing are papers on tools and ways to stimulate and develop social capital. This paper makes such an attempt.
EN
By employing the concept of a social capital the author argues that the best measure of a theoretical development for any economic theory of organisation is its contribution in the understanding of a social capital. In this way social capital is becoming one of the key factors of evolutionary changes within the economic theory of organisation. The author further wishes to point out how the evolutionary progress in economic theory of organisation brings about increasingly improved understanding of the relations in the theoretical models. However, the concession required for this improvement is a lower degree of a theoretical generalisation and more intense heterogeneity of the economic theory itself. The less effort an economic theory of organisation devotes to being theoretically impeccable, the more abundant are the increasing returns it yields through its findings with regard to the aspect of the social capital.
EN
The subject of this article is analysis of dependences between social capital and trust in public authority subjects. Social trust means generalized trust directed to others. Trust is the crucial factor of social capital, which may be defined as potential of social participation and co-operation existing in particular community, based on shared values, norms and mutual trust. In consequence the high trust co-operation of group members is easier. The article presents factors that build high trust in public authority subjects. The article shows trust as the basic of cooperation in community and as key element of social capital.
EN
The subject of the article is confidence as part of relationship between entrepreneurs and officials representing the units of local government. Apart from epistemological part the article includes empirical monograph: the author’s focus findings conducted among entrepreneurs acting in Białystok area. The following items were analyzed: enterpreneurs’ opinion on the character and specificity of their relationship with officials, importance of this relationship and expectations towards local authorities concerning operations which support development of local and regional enterprise. The issues were interpreted considering the concept of confidence as the basis for proper relationship.
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Content available remote Zaufanie, kapitał społeczny a finansowanie niskoczynszowego mieszkalnictwa
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The aim of this article is to put forward the following hypothesis: during the crisis of the trust non-used potential of the social capital is a barrier to low-income housing needs financing in Poland. Author presents the role of trust crisis in theory and practice pointing out definitions of the trust. In the second part of this paper author presents the possibilities of using social capital to financing housing needs. Trust creation, as a basic attribute of the social capital can have positive influence on the social well-being. However, it needs multifaceted acts at the local, regional and national level.
EN
The phenomenon and the notion of social capital are not new, but they are being approached and discussed in the context of new concepts of sustainable development of rural areas. The authoressess present the main conclusions and observations from an international Summer Academy devoted to the issue of social capital of rural areas that was organized in Finland . For more information about the organizer of workshops, about its forms and methodology see the previous abstract of the same authoresses' article.They also present, using the examples of Finish villages, the process and effects of the strengthening of the social capital of rural communities.
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Content available remote Zaufanie jako zasób strategiczny firm rodzinnych
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EN
The empirical research carried out in different countries on the performance of family businesses in comparison to their non-family counterparts show that the former are more effective than the latter. The natural source of the family business competitive advantage is family, social capital. Trust is a major element which makes up the capital. In the paper, the author describes the nature of the trust and identifies critical conditions necessary to sustain this strategic resource as time goes by and the business grows. According to the concept by Sundaramurthy to sustain the emotional trust in family businesses, their found-ers and managers have to focus on developing other forms of trust which are complementary to the emotional one and support it. Family firms have potential to generate bigger cross-border social capital, which lets them achieve better results in foreign markets.
EN
This article examines corruption trends in a sample of more than hundred countries. In the first part it documents that approximately 30 countries and three regions have the significant corruption trends, measured by Kendall's. Regarding the main regions in the world, corruption is increasing in Africa and in post-communist Europe as well, while the countries in the Orient are becoming less corrupt. The residuals from a standard corruption model show systematic variation that corresponds to the meagre information available on social capital. For a sub-sample of 22 European countries some social capital data are available, measured as generalised trusts scores. The article documents that the main force driving the variation in corruption trend are underlying trends in social capital. In practical level is the problem of corruption brought to the concrete economic-political conjunctions. The recent advances in social capital research imply that curbing income inequality and investing in education, overall institutional quality and political stability could result in more trusting populations.
EN
The social capital of an enterprise, understood as a network of relations among particular entities within a company, as well as those between the firm and its environment, can be best created by enhancing trust levels. Trust is indispensable for the development of every enterprise. Therefore, business entities have to undertake such steps that will reinforce it. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of social capital on an enterprise level and to analyse the issue of trust as one of the pillars on which social capital is founded.
EN
The aim of the article is to present one of the possible models of social policy - civic social policy. The author argues that traditional models such as those proposed by Esping- Andersen are based on the ideological criteria, which makes it difficult to accept one of them by all political parties. Therefore, the solution is to create model which concerns ways of accomplishment of social policy rather than ideology. Presenting the concept of civic social policy, the author argues that not only government, but also citizens and companies should be responsible for social and economic life. The subsidiarity should be the main rule organizing the social policy. The social capital can be used to accomplish some social tasks. When choosing the contractor of social tasks, price should not be the only criteria, but direct and indirect results rather.
EN
The article presents the results of research concerning the psychological welfare of population residing in rural areas. The collected material suggests that the level of happiness of rural population is comparable to that characterising the residents of highly urbanised areas. Economic capital, social and cultural capital are the factors that have the strongest influence on the population's contentment with life. Another factor important for the population's psychological welfare is the ability to adjust to the changing social and economic conditions. On the other hand, analyses of individual causes of satisfaction have revealed that family, relations with other people and place of residence are the sources of greatest contentment for rural population. This means that in the poorly developed regions the quality of life is as high as in the regions representing an advanced level of development. The high degree of psychological welfare can, therefore, be recognised as an element of social capital that may be utilised in the development of a given region.
EN
The paper offers an insight into a quantitative part of authoress' empirical research on social capital in Poland. The presented research was conducted in two small Polish towns of similar population and living standard, however differing significantly in local tradition and immigration level after the Second World War. The first part of the article presents the toll used in survey, designed to measure and compare multidimensional asset of household's social capital. In the second part the correlations with independent variables (that is socio-economic status and respondent's education level) are discussed. The third part of the paper analyses the gains from social capital in the sphere of household incomes (in broad sense). The survey's main finding is the strong correlation between different types of social capital, as well as between good household's economic and educational situation and a high level of social capital. Combining these findings with qualitative study in two researched towns, worrying effects of social capital are to be seen. Both, productive asset and the correlated above mentioned independent variables of the social capital, tend to reinforce social inequalities in the researched towns. On the local community level the exclusive and inward-looking groups of 'social capital bourgeoisie' were observed. The authoress claims that changing this negative tendency is a challenge to local social policy in Poland.
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Content available remote CREATIVE AND SOCIAL CAPITAL: CONCEPTS, PROBLEMS AND CONTRADICTIONS
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EN
The article deals with creative and social capital (SC) in the light of creative society. SC has both positive and negative aspects. The first are trust, economic development, ecological consciousness, etc. The latter are intolerance for certain individuals, stagnant relations, depression of the initiatives, etc. The negative aspects have been connected with the lack of creative aspirations within a social group. There is a dialectical relation between social and creative capital (CC). Although creative workers need certain support from their social environment, creativity does not only use social ties to spread creative results, but also ignores them by appealing to a new creative community. The comparison of SC and CC opens very different approaches towards society. In the case of SC, we still have the privileged classes who consolidate the whole society. Even in the case of the creative class we face the relics of (Post)Marxist economic approach if we correlate the activity of so called creative class with economic prosperity of a region. In the case of creative society, we have very different approach. If every person is more or less creative, we do not have the creative classes or parties as holders of CC any more. This (neo)liberal approach means also the dissemination of any form of capital, as well as elimination of attitude formed by economic priority in our societies.
EN
Diversification and multifunctional development are currently trendy definitions, which signify an unprecedented widening of the range of economic activities carried out in rural areas. Although farming still remains the rural economy's principal segment, the diminishing role of income obtained from agriculture and the decreasing number of jobs that it can offer to the rural population makes one pay greater attention to the creation of various non-agricultural or agriculture-related functions of rural areas. Multifunctional development is not a new phenomenon, but in the present situation of the Polish rural community the pace of such development will certainly become faster. Currently, only 8% of the population active in agriculture earns its income from farming exclusively, which increases pressure towards the search for non-agricultural sources of income. Thus, the reorientation in the principles of development of rural areas towards multifunctionality is becoming an urgent necessity. The process of Poland's integration with EU creates a great chance for the Polish rural community to enter the path of fast development. Neither the Polish government nor the Polish rural community are able to generate means as large as the structural funds offered Poland by the European Union.
EN
The paper begins with a discussion of the notion of social capital which seems to gain increasing popularity in both academic and media discourse. The concept of social capital can be understood in several, often contradictory, ways which proves useful both for its positive interpretation and critical analysis. The second part of the paper is devoted to the issue of the relationship between the notion of social capital and modernization theories. The final section of the text discusses three main ideological orientations of the contemporary Polish political discourse: the left (social-democratic) orientation, the right (conservative) orientation and the centre (liberal) orientation. These three discourses are linked to the ideal visions of Poland they imply. These visions in turn are presented both from the positive and critical standpoints. In all cases, it is shown how the notion of social capital can be used to support the arguments both for and against each of the orientations.
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Content available remote POTENCIÁL VENKOVA PRO PRAKTIKOVÁNÍ SOCIÁLNĚ INKLUZIVNÍCH AKTIVIT
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EN
The paper is focused on appreciation of natural potential and social networks in rural areas through social services. This issue is researched on the case of formalised social inclusive activities. Using secondary analysis was created original set of information about these activities within rural municipalities in the Czech Republic. The results of primary research show, that high natural potential is reflected by rural inhabitants. However, this potential is not often connected with realisation of social inclusive activities. If local actors realise these activities, it is within localities where local communities dispose with higher sociocultural potential – especially bridging social capital.
EN
The author discusses the definitions and meaning of two notions - human factor and social capital. Making a reference to the hitherto studies and analyses the author formulates a thesis that the role of these factors is gaining in significance in step with the general socio-economic development. Emphasis is laid in the article on the assessment of the present state and future role of these factors in the development of agriculture and rural areas in Poland. Attention is drawn to the main shortcomings and needs relating to quality improvement and increased influence of the discussed factors in the process of integration. In the conclusion of his article the author states that a considerable inflow of financial means as well as structural and administrative changes will not produce full possible advantages unless a radical improvement is achieved in the sphere of quality and creative participation of individuals and social capital.
EN
Research on national innovation system has increased noticeably in recent years. However, while some literature is available on technology management, little information is available on social capital. Similarly, the study on social capital has been mounting steadily, but little work is available on national innovation system. Thus, this work used the reports of World Bank and World Value Survey, applying the linear structural relation model to consider this relationship between the social capital and national innovation system. Overall, the results found that the innovation seem a collective achievement embedded with other social activities, and that the social capital like a catalyser helps the collective innovation and economic productivity. Thus, this work suggests that every country should recognize that economy was closely embedded with social structure, and that should enrich the social capital to improve the performance of national innovation system and economic productivity.
EN
The article marks an effort to systematically consider the problem of social capital in its aspects connected with social inequalities in access to education. The author is particularly interested in the possibility of explaining the reasons for the worse situation of rural youth in terms of access to education than that of young people from urban areas. He adopts as a staring point for his analysis three basic concepts of the specific character of social capital (as formulated by: Robert Putnam, James Coleman, and Pierre Bourdieu) and tries to determine the probable scope of research relating to the functioning of the educational system in rural areas. He also formulates a number of explanatory hypotheses. In accordance with its title the article has the character of theoretical preliminaries and constitutes a preamble to further investigations concerning the relation between social capital and education in rural areas.
EN
This chapter focuses on several aspects affecting the life of binational marriages currently residing in Poland. Examined herein are the dilemmas which transnational couples face in deciding about place of residence, language(s) of communication, the culture of their children’s education, etc. Also of interest are assessments of both the positive and negative aspects of transnational married life as well as the unique problems identified by the spouses in their descriptions. These marriages have been analyzed as a case of cultural contact under the circumstances of strong emotional ties and a special closeness which underscore the slightest of cultural differences separating the partners. At the same time, it is on their basis that boundaries are shattered between what is familiar and what is foreign. The analyzed material is drawn from long-term qualitative research – specifically 65 in-depth interviews conducted in Warsaw and several other Polish cities over the past decade with one or both spouses. In each case, one of the partners is of Polish nationality while the other comes from Europe, Africa, Latin America or Asia.
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