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EN
One of the most frequent problems in translation is the question of translation of hypocorisms: inasmuch as Polish is rich in diminutives, English practically does not have them. Diminutive and affectionate forms in a very limited range of contexts, and descriptive (analytical) diminutives are of little stylistic interest. The article discusses examples of coping with this problem in translations both from Polish into English, and from English into Polish. The authors tries to answer the question if it is possible to retain the emotionality expressed in diminutives of a translated text. Two texts were selected for the analysis: Jan Kochanowski’s Laments in Stanisław Barańczak and Seamus Heaney’s translation, and Ronal Fairbank’s The Flower Beneath the Foot, translated by Andrzej Sosnowski. Laments, addressed to a dead child, are of particular interest for the analysis, because diminutives and terms of endearment are frequently used and perform a peculiar function of creation of meaning. Discussing this translation, the author of the article tries to demonstrate that the emotionality expressed by Kochanowski through hypocorisms has been expressed by other means in the English translation: the right choice of epithets, and orchestration of the verse. In the Polish translation of Firbank’s novel, the hypocorisms introduced by the translator are read not as an arbitrary addition, but as elements that contribute to the camp climate of the novel, and reflect the irony, artificiality, and theatricality of the work, by means that are accessible in Polish language.
EN
The text offers comments on legal translation and its special nature. It is argued that legal translation is much different from other types of specialised translations. Unlike the language of engineering or medicine, legal language does not only refer to the related specialised practice, i.e. the law, but constitutes legal reality, being at the same time an instrument with which legal disputes are resolved. In the context of translation, legal language is particularly challenging as the process of finding equivalence is not restricted to interlinguistic level, but invites both intralinguistic and intersemiotic considerations. Moving not only between different natural languages, but also between different legal cultures, legal translators have to face problems that can often be naturally found in intercultural communication.
EN
The aim of this article is to investigate the usefulness and applicability of CAT (Computer-Aided Translation) programmes in relation to the qualities (e.g. standardisation, predictability, terminology) of the translated text. In the study both scientific articles and translator’s forums are taken into account in order to establish advantages and limitations of commercial CATs. It appears that CAT programmes influence cognitively the translator’s work and even though they are supposed to facilitate his or her work, they may hinder or slow down the process of translation. These programmes are also applicable only in the case of certain types of texts, namely those which are standard and predictable and they fail in the case of texts which are linguistically or culturally-coloured. Furthermore, translators express numerous practical concerns regarding CATs (e.g. their price, instability). However, their use has become a very basic translation skill and it is no longer an advantage but an absolute necessity for anyone wishing to work as a translator.
EN
Equivalence may be interpreted as the relationship between units of the same language or two different languages. The article analyses the equivalence between units of the same linguistic system, with the assumption that equivalence is the relationship between words/phrases with a common referent. This is a semantic relationship strongly dependent on context; one which is fully realised only on the level of parole, a specific use. The analysed material comprises inventories, surveys and testaments from the seventeenth and (mostly) eighteenth centuries. The aim of the article is to present the methods for determining equivalence between the units present in the text. Seven of such methods are highlighted.
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Content available Wybrane stałe związki wyrazowe w translacji
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EN
This article attempts to determine the types of interlingual equivalents of Polish and German collocations and denomination units on the basis of previously identified collocational and denominational features of word compounds and to consider the possibility of using the conducted research from the field of collocational and denominational theory in translational practice. Incorrect translation of collocations, resulting largely from the lack of awareness of this phenomenon by translators, reduces the stylistic value of the translated fictional text, and in the case of a professional text, it can even lead to terminological inconsistencies. Regarding denominational units, the translator must be aware of the entire complexity of denomination and specify the denominational motives and the grammatical and onomasological structure of the particular denominational units in order to answer the question by which structures it is possible to express similar motives in the target language.
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Content available remote A Generalization of a Theorem of Móricz and Rhoades on Weighted Means
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EN
In this paper, we prove a theorem which gives an equivalent formulation of summability by weighted mean methods. The result of Hardy [1] and that of Móricz and Rhoades [2] are special cases of this theorem. In this context, it is important to note that the result of Móricz and Rhoades is valid even without the assumption Pn/Pn→ 0 as n→∞.
EN
The article attempts to show how challenging it is for a translator to render non-standard speech: dialects, jargons and idiolects used by literary characters. Using a lot of examples from literature and online forums for translators the author shows that strategies employed by translators to translate dialects often bring about unexpectedly negative results, like confusing the reader or exposing the literary character to ridicule in the translation. The article also attempts to suggest the right way to approach translating non-standard speech, namely focusing on the function a given dialect is supposed to perform in the original text, in order to evoke a similar reaction in the reader of the translation as in the recipient of the original.
EN
The Steiner tree problem is an intractable optimization problem, which asks for a network, in fact a tree, interconnecting a given point set V in a metric space and minimizing the total length of the network. The tree topology t of the network is called a Steiner topology and a tree T with minimum length with respect to its Steiner topology is called a Steiner tree. As a combinatorial optimization problem, the Steiner tree problem asks for a Steiner tree T with minimum length over all possible topologies t on V. It has been proved that if T is in E3 then the length of T cannot be expressed by radicals even when T spans just 4 points. For such optimization problems in which the objective functions do not have closed form solutions the traditional approach is approximation. In this paper we propose a new approach by introducing some new concepts: equivalence, indicators and quasi-indicators, and then we apply these concepts to the Steiner tree problem. Roughly speaking, a quasi-indicator is a function that is simple to compute but indicates with high probability the optimal solution to the original optimisation problem. For a specific optimisation problem - finding the optimal Steiner topologies on 4 points in space, we demonstrate how to find good quasi-indicators. The extensive computational experiments over 5000 random 4-point sets show that the best quasi-indicator for finding optimal Steiner topologies on 4 points in space is not only easy to compute but also extremely successful with less than 1.5% failures in indicating optimal topologies even if degeneracy of Steiner minimal trees exists. Moreover, within the 1.5% cases of failure, the maximum and the average relative error are 1.5% and 0.2% respectively. Therefore, the performance of the proposed Q-indicator is very good and could be applied to the four vertices surrounding any pair of adjacent Steiner points in a Steiner tree on n ( > 4) points in space to make local improvements to the topology of the Steiner minimal tree in space.
EN
Several algebraic structures (namely HW, BZMVdM, Stonean MV and MVΔ algebras) related to many valued logical systems are considered and their equivalence is proved. Four propositional calculi whose Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra corresponds to the four equivalent algebraic structures are axiomatized and their semantical completeness is given.
PL
In article is offered delimit the notions “equivalence” and “adequacy”, usually used as equivalent. Becomes firmly established that equivalence in translation artistic text impossible in principle, but adequacy – only approach the language registration to original in that degree, which allow correlation phonetic and grammatical building, lexical and stylistic systems corresponding to two languages, with conservation of the figurative system and other attribute of the artistic product. Author’s standpoint is offered In this context on question of adequacy of the translation M.YU. Lermontovym poems Geyne “Ein Fichtenbaum steht einzam…”.
EN
In general, the purpose of translation - searching for cultural and semantic equivalents - is to reproduce various kinds of texts - including religious, literary, scientific, and philosophical texts - in another language and thus making them available to wider circle of readers. However, the term translation is confined to the written, and the term interpretation to the spoken (Newmark 1991: 35). Within this in mind, comparing text in different languages inevitably involves a theory of equivalence.
EN
The aim of this article is to present the results of an analysis of the terminology of the Polish Criminal Code and its equivalents taken from three translations of the code into German. Scientific corpus includes Polish Criminal Code and the following three translations: DE-IURE-PL (2019), C.H. Beck (2012) and Max-Planck-Institut (1998). The method used is comparative legal analysis. The results of the analysis may find application in academic teaching and be used in the development of courses in legal translation.
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EN
The main purpose of this work is to propose new notions of equivalence between polynomial matrices that preserve both the finite and infinite elementary divisor structures. The approach we use is twofold: (a) the 'homogeneous polynomial matrix approach', where in place of the polynomial matrices we study their homogeneous polynomial matrix forms and use 2-D equivalence transformations in order to preserve their elementary divisor structure, and (b) the 'polynomial matrix approach', where some conditions between the 1-D polynomial matrices and their transforming matrices are proposed.
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EN
The main purpose of this work is to propose new notions of equivalence between polynomial matrices that preserve both the finite and infinite elementary divisor structures. The approach we use is twofold: (a) the 'homogeneous polynomial matrix approach', where in place of the polynomial matrices we study their homogeneous polynomial matrix forms and use 2-D equivalence transformations in order to preserve their elementary divisor structure, and (b) the `polynomial matrix approach', where some conditions between the 1-D polynomial matrices and their transforming matrices are proposed.
EN
This contribution deals with the problem of scientific identity understood as the adherence to a particular scientific community which shares, fundamentally and permanently, research concepts and working methods of its own. In this article, we try to show the specificity of the work of the researcher in French linguistics in Poland. It results from the differences between the linguistic spaces which circumscribe the theoretical and methodological research framework of French and Polish linguists.
EN
In the literature concerning this subject three phases of development characterizing Polish law emerge. The first phase covers the inter-war period, when five different legal codes were in effect across the Polish state. The second phase characterizes the time of the Polish Peoples Republic, and the third dates from the political changeover in 1989. The present article concerns civil law operating in the fi rst of the above-mentioned periods, specifically the German civil code in effect in the western parts of the Second Republic. Particular attention is given here to Volume IV of family law and to the nominal compounds occurring in it. Nominal compounds enjoy a privileged place in German word-formation. In the present article they are subjected to an analysis by comparing them to their Polish equivalents as used in official translations from the German civil codes of 1923 and 1933. First, the aims of translating the German civil code during the Second Republic are discussed. Next, the semantic relationships holding between and among the elements of German Compounds—whether modifying, appositive, or lexical paraphrase—are analyzed, and their equivalents in Polish are given, among which the most common turn out to be adjectives and adnominal genitives. The majority of the correspondents to German compounds in contemporary Polish turn out to be conventional phrases; only a small number are no-longer used calques from German. Among the latter are translations of German legal concepts with no obvious correspondent in Polish, such as laws covering civil rights (Ehrenrechte) or mortgages (Grundschulden).
17
Content available remote Of minds and men – computers and translators
81%
EN
Translation process research (TPR) efforts seem at times unconcerned with the theoretical foundations they need to interpret their results. A pervasive theoretical approach within TPR has been the mind-as-computer view. This approach has fostered both mechanistic and functional explanations of the translation process, including semantic notions of meaning, unrealistic constructs of the mental lexicon, and reified notions of equivalence. Some consequences of the approach are illustrated with discussions in the realm of translation quality assessment (automated and combined metrics, rubrics based on error categorization, and the impact of human variables and factors) and the monitor model hypothesis and its recent developments. Alternative approaches that draw from 4EA cognition are sketched that suggest that meaning is encyclopedic; that it is a process that cannot be measured; that the mental lexicon is only an abstraction of a part of (world-) knowledge; and that the tendency to choose default translations follows from the very structure of the brain/mind and the minimax principle.
EN
Equivalent Culture-Anchored Units Translation? The Phraseological Units IssueThis article examines a question that has been of long-standing interest to linguists working in the fields of cross-linguistic phraseology and the translation of idiosyncratic language units, such as phraseological units (PUs). The challenge of translating PUs, which are understood as "patterns sanctioned by a given culture", involves the translation of culturemes. Therefore, a good translator must be able to assess the importance of the elements containing cultural references in the source language while "moving" them to the target language. When translating PUs, it is desirable that interlingual (cross-linguistic) equivalence be achieved. The fact that translations of a PU can be very different (the translator can paraphrase the text, creatively change it, or simply eliminate the PU) implies that the translational equivalence of PUs must be functional. While a cross-linguistic comparison (and the achievement of translational equivalence) of PUs can be made by omitting the form parameter, it is desirable to preserve the extension and semantic structure, the connotative-pragmatic component, and the phrase combinatorics. Ekwiwalencja jedostek "kulturowo zakotwiczonych"? Kwestia jednostek frazeologicznychArtykuł porusza zagadnienie, które od kilkudziesięciu lat cieszy się zainteresowaniem językoznawców zajmujących się konfrontacją językową frazeologii oraz tłumaczeniem idiosynkratycznych jednostek językowych, takich jak jednostki frazeologiczne (JF). Wyzwaniem podczas tłumaczenia JF, rozumianych jako "wzorce sankcjonowane przez daną kulturę", jawi się konieczność tłumaczenia kulturemów. Tłumacz zatem stoi w obliczu konieczności prawidłowej oceny danego elementu pod względem jego odniesień kulturowych w języku źródłowym podczas przekładania JF na język docelowy. Podczas tłumaczenia JF pożądane jest osiągnięcie międzyjęzykowej (cross-linguistic) ekwiwalencji. Fakt, że tłumaczenie JF może być wielorakie (tłumacz może parafrazować tekst, twórczo go zmienić lub po prostu wyeliminować JF), oznacza, że ekwiwalencja przekładu JF musi być funkcjonalna. Chociaż podczas międzyjęzykowego porównania (mającego na celu osiągnięcie translacyjnej równoważności) JF ich forma jest rzeczą drugorzędną, to wskazane jest, aby zachować ich rozszerzenie znaczeniowe i strukturę semantyczną, aspekt konotacyjno-pragmatyczny oraz łączliwość.
EN
Regular languages are divided into equivalence classes according to the lengths of the words and both the universal and the existential equivalence of rational transductions on the set of these classes is studied. It is shown that the cardinality equivalence problem is undecidable for e-free finite substitutions. The morphic replication equivalence problem is arithmetized and an application to word equations is presented. Finally, the generalized Post correspondence problem is modified by using a single inverse morphism or a single finite substitution or its inverse instead of two morphisms.
EN
The present article deals with various lexical, grammatical, stylistic problems encountered by translators while transmitting aspects of expressiveness of the original text (on the example of Belarusian-English poetic translation). The focus of attention is on basic transformation types, which are illustrated by the original and colourful examples. The author of the article considers not only purely linguistic aspects of translation, but also relevant pragmatic adaptation.
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