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XX
The political consequences of the 2nd World War resulted in part of Upper Silesia being taken over by the Polish administration. It required a new building to house the provincial administration office and the Silesian Assembly. The architects from Cracov designed a building of monumental mass decorated with symbols of nationality and the power of state. The building of the Office was to become a landmark of the new Silesian province and a clear sign of its national status and historical background.
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Content available remote Architektura v regionech: metoda, hodnocení a topografický impuls
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EN
This article is a historiographical reflection on a tradition within Czech art and architectural history. Specifically, it is an analysis of the tradition of local architectural history. It argues that this tradition is without parallel in international scholarship, in terms of the volume of publications written by trained scholars about the architectural of regional towns, cities and regions. On the one hand, it argues that this is a highly welcome phenomenon, since it contradicts the focus on the metropolis that so often dominates scholarship on the history of architecture. At the same time, however, it argues that this large literature suffers a systemic weakness, in that little goes beyond topographic documentation of buildings and sites. This ‘topographic impulse,’ as the article terms it, is a product of nineteenth-century positivism, and suffers the same shortcomings, namely, the lack of a critical conceptual apparatus that can enable it to make judgements about architectural significance. The culmination of this can be seen in the production of vast scholarly works of architectural history that may seem out of proportion to the significance of their subject. Or, to put it in a different, vast scholarly works in which the significance of the subject is never spelled out. The article thus concludes by emphasising the hermeneutic inter-dependence of the individual building / structure and wider historical, social, cultural or political frameworks.
CS
Tento článek je historiografickou reflexí jisté tradice českých dějin umění a architektury. Zaměřuje se obzvláště na analýzu tradice lokálních dějin architektury, jež v mezinárodním měřítku nemá obdoby, pokud jde o množství publikací o dějinách architektury krajských měst, městeček a regionů napsaných kvalifikovanými badateli. Uznává, že jde o velmi vítaný jev, protože tvoří protiklad k převažující koncentraci vědeckého výzkumu dějin architektury na metropoli. Zároveň však tvrdí, že tato rozsáhlá literatura trpí systémovým nedostatkem, neboť jen málokdy přesahuje úroveň topografické dokumentace staveb a lokalit. Tento „topografický impuls“, jak jej článek pojmenovává, je produktem pozitivismu 19. století a má i stejné nedostatky. Postrádá především kritický pojmový aparát, který by umožnil posuzovat architektonický význam. Za vyvrcholení této tendence lze pokládat produkci rozsáhlých vědeckých prací z dějin architektury, které se jeví neúměrné k významu jejich předmětu. Anebo jinak řečeno, obsáhlé vědecké publikace, v nichž význam tohoto předmětu nikdy není objasněn. V závěru článku je pak zdůrazněna hermeneutická provázanost jednotlivých budov/staveb a širších historických, sociálních, kulturních nebo politických rámců.
4
Content available remote Transfiguracja form, albo - niech sczeźnie funkcjonalizm!
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EN
Today's architecture is not an artistic expression of some definite ideal; it is an expression of every ideal, to which creator will be able to grant a form. Architecture tends to have more and more in common with the other arts, at the same time loosing its name of the great art of utility. Firmity, utility and beauty - they have lost their former meanings. The prime aesthetic category is now - novelty. An architectural composition is based on - the transfiguration of the forms rediscovered. The role of decomposition here becomes particular.
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Content available remote Metropolitan
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EN
59 years after the total devastation of Warsaw the reconstruction of the city is still being continued, and much remains to be done. A considerable part of the capital., the Old Town and the Royal Route had been raised from ruin already during the first post-war decade. The discussed conception of reconstruction, however, has already become part of a different era and manner of comprehending architecture than the one represented by the generation of builders of Warsaw in 1945-1970. The Metropolitan building raised in recent years on the northern side of the Marszałek Józef Piłsudski Square is an example of a new venture and approach to the reconstruction of the historical city. How are we to assess the Metropolitan today, without prejudice and excessive hopes? It is necessary to take into consideration several fundamental issues, the first being localisation. The next important problem concerns the relation of the form of the Metropolitan towards the architecture in its immediate surrounding. If the original premises stemming from conservation directives were to entail a harmonious reference to the ambience of the site, then the measures applied by Norman Foster proved insufficient for attaining this goal. It would be difficult to attain a composition harmonising with an architecture of a different, although excellent origin, by applying those principles, together with their characteristic consistency, unless one opts for a pastiche. Within the limits of the accepted convention the building designed by Foster displays consistency and perfection.
EN
Czech modern architecture exerted a considerable influence on Croatia owing to the work that Czech architects did in Croatia (e.g. the construction of the Bata factory in Borovo), and more importantly to the many Croatian and Yugoslav architects who studied at the Technical University in Prague. Marko Vidaković (Golubinci, 18 July 1890 - Zagreb, 5 January 1976) was one of the most important such architects. After attending the Vienna University of Technology for a year (1909-10), Vidaković studied intermittently at the Czech Technical University (Česká vysoká škola technická) in Prague from 1910 to 1919. He played a key role in the emergence of modern architecture in Croatia by organising Czechoslovakian Contemporary Architecture exhibition in Zagreb (17 March - 1 April 1928), which he did with the help of Zdenĕk Wirth from the Czechoslovak Ministry of Schools and Public Education. Soon after the exhibition, Vidaković designed and built one of the first buildings designed in the international style in Zagreb, a villa owned by Ljudevit Pfeffermann and located at 27a Jurjevska Street (1928-1929). This and his later architectural designs (such as a never built design for the 1931 pavilion at the Zagreb Fair) show the influences of Czech architectural work. Although the Pfefferman Villa was his last built project, the unrealised designs he created for various buildings and structures in Zagreb (tram stop shelters, 1930; an art pavilion, 1930) provide clear evidence of the great talent of this architect, who adopted the vocabulary of modern architecture. He also played a major role in helping to spread the international style in Croatia and Yugoslavia through his many writings, which were published in the Ljubljana-based magazine Architecture and in daily newspapers in Zagreb and Belgrade. During the Second World War he actively participated in campaigns to save Serbian children in the pro-fascist Independent State of Croatia.
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Content available Architektoniczna moda
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PL
Artykuł stanowi refleksję na temat mody w architekturze. Począwszy od jej zdefiniowania, przedstawiony został ambiwalentny charakter tego zjawiska, które towarzyszy procesowi projektowemu od początku cywilizacji. Na przykładach z ostatnich dziesięcioleci moda zostaje pokazana jako element wzbogacający rozwój architektury oraz jako element, który nierzadko przejmuje kontrolę nad wyobraźnią architektów.
EN
The article is a reflection on fashion in architecture. It is a presentation of an ambivalent nature of this phenomenon, which accompanies the design process since the beginning of the civilization. For examples of recent decades, the fashion is shown as an enrichment development of architecture and as an element that often takes control of imagination of the architects.
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Content available remote Wewnętrzne drogi przez budynek – architektura i sfera emocji
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XX
From the architectural tendencies and styles of the last decades new phenomena are emerging – buildings are not designed on a basis of formal transformations but rather as intricate arrangements of interior pathways. Simultaneously, there is a noticeable pursuit towards achieving specific quality of architecture – where it does not remain neutral, exerts an impact on the observer and evokes emotions. The article explores the two above mentioned tendencies as mutually interrelated. It discusses their origins and reveals that while outlining the important characteristics of the contemporary architecture they arise from early modern concepts. Today’s abysmal foyers where different species of ramps and trajectories let the observer go through space and experience various environments are the continuation of the aesthetic and architectural ideas that evolved in the beginning of twentieth century. The currently ongoing process in which buildings are trespassing the characteristics of stable structures and rather refer to imaginative geographies and landscapes is one of the immediate effects of that continuation. While deeply imbedded in history – it also opens architecture to new spheres of explorations.
EN
Olga Chrzanowska, Contemporary architect’s self-education on the issues concerning architecture history. Selected problems. Interdisciplinary Contexts of Special Pedagogy, no. 25, Poznań 2019. Pp. 403-417. Adam Mickiewicz University Press. ISSN 2300-391X. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/ikps.2019.25.17 The aim of this text is to describe the risks faced by contemporary architects when undertaking to learn, either directly or indirectly, about architecture in the era of the Internet and mass consumption of culture. The role of architect’s self-education on the issues concerning architecture history and aesthetic empathy theory in the context of everyday architectural landscapes. As an example, the historical foundations for the thinking on modernity in designs of the three architects: Peter Zumthor, Christian de Portzamparc and David Chipperfield
EN
The article presents the late authorship of Miron Białoszewski, especially his poems collected in the book Odczepić się (1978) and a diary Chamowo (2009) that are a document of the poet’s life in the block of flats after his removal to the flat in a tower block at the Lizbońska Street in Warsaw in 1975. In these texts we may notice the new way of writing that was formed by new accommodation and living arrangement that influenced the poets’ life. On the other hand the room on the ninth floor occurs the place that was marked with sacrum and it puts an impact on the poets’ metaphysical and supernatural experience. The flat in the tower block has also influenced the author’s perspective and the way of writing, so that Białoszewski has experienced terminal situation – being between the two forms of living, balancing between the earth and heaven, profanum and sacrum. The removal starts to resemble a ferry across Styx, and the ninth floor becomes an unwanted porch of eternity. The titled word odczepianie się (disconnecting, separating) from the past and being at the top of the tower block means the new beginning for the poet, and writing becomes an imitation of the God’s act of creation that helps Białoszewski to accommodate in the world after heart attack and removal.
EN
The work of the Polish-Egyptian Archaeological Mission at Saqqara revealed a cemetery of palace officials that was in use during the late Old Kingdom. The evidence found during the exploration of the tombs indicates that the tomb builders were aware of the problems resulting from torrential rains in last years of functioning of the cemetery and that architectural solutions have been invented against these problems. The discussed phenomena seem to be directly related to the 4.2 ka event.
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Content available remote New life of postindustrial factories in Bialystok – chosen aspects
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EN
The revitalization is one of the most essential processes associated with transformations of urban structures in the 20th and 21st centuries. Revitalization actions, carried out in Polish cities at the beginning of the 21st century, concern mainly postindustrial areas and buildings. The most known revitalization operations in Poland have been carried out in Lodz and Poznan. The authors of the article will present analyses concerning revitalization problems of some old factories in Bialystok– former significant centre of the textile industry in Poland in the end of 19th and first half of the 20th century. The authors will present significant architectural, spatial and economical effects of such transformations. The research was carried out in the frame of scientific project No. S/WA/2/2016 at the Bialystok University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture and financed from science research sources by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
EN
The aim of the article is to analyze the problem of demolishing valuable objects of modernist architecture. It raises a question of the scope of protection needed. The author analyzes the requirements of the legal statutes, which leads to the conclusion that there is indeed a great need for new and effective protection measures, as well as the establishment of appropriate evaluation criteria. The author discusses certain examples of demolished buildings, pointing out the features that made them unique and exceptional. Moreover, the article compares those “never recognized nor acknowledged” monuments with the buildings which has taken their space. Due to the fact, that the demolition of the most of the post-war modernism buildings happened because of the lack of appropriate and effective conservation efforts, the author calls for greater involvement of architectural critics in the process of qualification of monuments and their protection.
Umění (Art)
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2021
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tom 69
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nr 1
2-22
EN
In the mid-nineteenth century the north Bohemian industrial region, settled by a mainly German-speaking population, experienced exceptional urban and demographic growth. Its characteristic feature was rapid urban development which went hand in hand with an urge to build. In this way an impressive conglomeration of coexisting industrial areas emerged: stately villas, grandiose public buildings, delightful garden quarters and small town housing that created a distinctive genius loci for the place. The border region had long been a busy crossroads of culture, history and ideology, where Czechs, Germans and Jews mixed together and influenced each other. It thus reflected the complex ethnic relationships on the territory of what is today the Czech Republic. This wealthy, heavily populated region with a continuous belt of industrially developed agglomerations formed the economic backbone of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. Industry became an inseparable part of the identity of these towns, shaped not only by local architects but also by foreign studios and creators whose names were wellknown, operating in the adjacent German regions. A more or less independent north Bohemian architectural scene emerged with Ústí nad Labem and Liberec especially as its partial centres, a certain fragmentation given by the mixing of varied, often conflicting, tendencies being typical. This paper focuses on the architecture of the Bohemian Germans which created a natural counterpart to the architecture of the Czech majority. Its aim is to analyse in more detail the architectural product of northern Bohemia while laying emphasis on the stylistic starting points and theoretical background, including the concept of ‘style’ which did not lose its topicality even during the period between the wars which forms the focus of this study. Attention is similarly focused on the relationship between the clients and the architects and the financial and personal ties with another country which played a relatively significant role. The paper is a contribution to the revision of the still prevailing opinion that the buildings in the border areas are peripheral and not very inventive.
CS
Severočeská průmyslová oblast, osídlená především německým obyvatelstvem, prošla od poloviny 19. století nebývalým urbanistickým a demografickým růstem. Charakteristickým znakem je překotný urbanistický rozvoj, který šel ruku v ruce se stavebním kvasem. Tím vznikla působivá skrumáž koexistujících průmyslových areálů, honosných vil, pompézních veřejných budov, velkorysých zahradních čtvrtí a maloměstské zástavby, vytvářející zdejšího svérázného genia loci. Pohraniční oblasti byly již odedávna rušnou křižovatku kultur, dějin a ideologií, v níž se mísili a ovlivňovali Češi, Němci a Židé. Odráží tak složité etnické vztahy na území dnešní České republiky. Bohatý, hustě osídlený region se souvislým pásem průmyslově rozvinutých aglomerací tvořil hospodářskou páteř Čech, Moravy a Slezska. Průmysl se stal nedílnou součástí identity zdejších měst, jejichž podobu kromě místních architektů, formovaly zahraniční ateliéry a tvůrci zvučných jmen, působící v přilehlých německých oblastech. Vznikla tak víceméně samostatná severočeská architektonická scéna s dílčími centry zejména v Ústí nad Labem a Liberci, pro kterou je příznačná jistá roztříštěnost daná mísením různorodých, často protichůdných směrů. Text se zaměřuje na architekturu českých Němců, která tvořila přirozený protipól architektuře české majority. Cílem je detailnější rozbor architektonické produkce severních Čech, přitom důraz je kladen rovněž na stylová východiska a teoretické pozadí včetně pojmu „styl“, který neztratil na aktuálnosti ani v meziválečném období, jež tvoří těžiště této studie. Pozornost je věnována rovněž vztahu objednavatelů a architektů a jejich finančních a osobních vazeb k zahraničním oblastem, které hrály poměrně významnou roli. Příspěvek se pokouší přispět k revizi stále převládajícího názoru na stavební produkci v pohraničních oblastech jako na periferní a nepříliš invenční.
PL
Działający początkowo w Bydgoszczy, a później Poznaniu inżynier Xaver Geisler pozostawił po sobie 4 realizacje wieżowe. Jego wieże powstały w Odolanowie (1903 r.), Swarzędzu '1905 r.), Kościanie (1908 r.) i Śremie (1908-1909 r.). W przeciwieństwie do innych biur inżynieryjnych, budujących wodociągi w okresie zaborów i realizujących często identyczne wieże wodne w różnych miastach. Geisler traktował każdą wieżę indywidualnie. Budowle w Odolanowie i Swarzędzu to klasyczne wieże typu grzybek, inspirowane jeszcze średniowieczną architekturą obronną. Natomiast wieże w Kościanie i Śremie to bogate realizacje historyzujące, reinterpretujące w sposób swobodny motyw londyńskiego mostu Tower Bridge. Dzięki tym ostatnim dziełom, dotychczas praktycznie nieznanego prowincjonalnego inżyniera, nazwisko Geisler wpisało się na stałe w poczet najbardziej kreatywnych twórców wodociągowych wież wodnych w Polsce.
EN
Originally he was working in Bydgoszcz, and later in Poznań an engineer Xaver Geisler left a io'ar :ower proj ects. His towers built in Odolanów (1903), Swarzędz (1905), Kościan (1908) and Śrem (1908-1909 . Ir. contrast to other engineering offices, building water supply during the conquest and often pursuing the san:e water t: o?? ers in different cities, Geisler treat each individual tower. Buildings in Odolanów and Swarzędz towers is a classic type of mushroom, yet inspired by the medieval defensive architecture. However, towers in Kościan ana Seen:, are a rich portfolio historicizing, reinterpretation in a free recital in London's Tower Bridge. With the la::-:: works, still unknown to the provincial engineer, Geisler's name formed part of the solid against the m c s: creative artists of water towers, water supply systems in Poland.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje historię ujęcia i Stacji Uzdatniania Wody we Wrześni, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem przemian budowlano -architektonicznych, jakie obiekt przeszedł w ciągu swojej 100 letniej historii. Autorzy analizują m.in. wpływ rozmieszczenia pomieszczeń na funkcjonalność techniczną i technologiczną obiektu, a także kompozycję przestrzenną i modernizację bryły obiektu z punktu widzenia estetyki.
EN
The author of the article the is analysing the problem of modernity in architecture on the example of the concept of Podlasie Opera and Philharmonic in Bialystok – one of the most interesting project of contemporary architecture in Poland. It shows a kind of new way in creating modern public building not only in Poland but also in Europe. That means a special synergy of ideas, tradition, technology and nature in architecture – the sophisticated way to achieve modernity in contem -porary design. The project was based on three ideas – which concerns mainly to local context (religious hills, Orthodox and Jewish cemeteries), tradition of antique architecture and saint places of Israel and the city centre of Bialystok. Significant role in the project plays the greenery – plants on elevations, poles, roofs, introduced on a few different levels. This ecological aspect refers to the very important tendency of 21st century – sustainable architecture. The complex was designed by studio of Marek Budzynski Architect and was constructed during 2005−2012. We can define the project as the synergy and synthesis of the tradition with the modernity, integration of architecture, culture, technology and the landscape.
PL
W związku z obchodami 500-lecia Reformacji 5 grudnia 2017 r. w Instytucie Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk odbyło się otwarcie wystawy fotograficznej Kościoły Reformacji w obiektywie Piotra Drewniaka. Autor zdjęć jest pracownikiem Instytutu Sztuki PAN, zajmuje się także fotografią artystyczną i dokumentacyjną. Na wystawie pokazano wybrane obiekty architektury i sztuki, związane narodzinami i rozwojem Reformacji w Saksonii, na Śląsku, Prusach, Wielkopolsce i Wielkim Księstwie Litewskim. Wystawie towarzyszyło seminarium naukowe z okazji 500-lecia Reformacji. Obrady poświęcono kwestiom architektury sakralnej wyznań reformowanych, jej przemianom oraz wzajemnym związkom i oddziaływaniom. Spośród dawnych prowincji Rzeczypospolitej wyraźniejsze i dłużej trwające oblicze protestanckie miała Wielkopolska. Wśród gmin innowierczych najwcześniej pojawili się Bracia Czescy, w końcu XVI wieku powstała ich monumentalna świątynia w Krotoszynie. Drugim nurtem reformacyjnym był luteranizm, który docieral do Wielkopolski głównie z Saksonii i Prus Królewskich. Protestantyzm miał odmienny od katolicyzmu stosunek do budowli koscielnej. O architektonicznej formie decydowała nie symbolika budowli, tylko składniki służby Bożej, głównie kazanie. Największą uwagę zwracano na jednolitość przestrzeni wnętrza, dobrą akustykę, oraz widoczność ze wszystkich miejsc w świątyni, żeby wierni mieli jednoczesnie dobry kontakt z ołtarzem, amboną i chórem muzycznym. Pierwszą świątynię protestancką na zamku książęcym Hertenfels w Torgau, otworzył już 5 października 1544 roku Marcin Luter. Propagandowy wydźwięk światyni z Torgau sprawił, że stała się prototypem dla następnych kaplic zamkowych w Rzeszy. Nowatorskie projekty na tych terenach pojawiły się, gdy rozpoczęły się teoretyczne rozważania nad architekturą protestancką (np. świątynia w Walterhausen, autorstwa Wolfa Christopha Zorna von Plobsheim z Gothy, czy realizacje projektowane przez Georga Bähra i jego ucznia Johanna Georga Schmidta w środowisku Drezna). Zetkniecie się reformacji z kontrreformacją nie spowodowało kryzysu sztuki. Po obu stronach do prac artystycznych zatrudniano najwybitniejszych twórców, którzy tworzyli dzieła o cechach wspólnych, a ich bogactwo formalne wciąż kryje w sobie różnorodne problemy klasyfikacyjne.
EN
A photographic exhibition: “Churches of the Reformation in the Lens of Piotr Drewniak” was opened on 5 December 2017 at the Institute of Art of the Polish Academy of Sciences to mark the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. The author of the photographs works at the institute of Art and in addition specializes in artistic and documentary photography. The exhibition featured selected objects of architecture and artworks associated with the emergence and progress of the Reformation in Saxony, Silesia, Prussia, Greater Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The exposition was accompanied by a scientific seminar about 500 years of the Reformation. The debates focused on the sacral architecture of reformed creeds - its transformations as well as mutual relations and impact. Among the former provinces of the Commonwealth the most conspicuous and longest-lasting Protestant character was maintained in Greater Poland. The earliest among the dissident communes were the Bohemian Brethren, whose monumental church was erected at the end of the sixteenth century in Krotoszyn. The second Protestant current was Lutheranism, which reached Greater Poland mainly from Saxony and Royal Prussia. The Protestant attitude towards church architecture differed from that of Catholicism. The architectural form was determined not by the symbolism of the building but by the components of serving God, predominantly the sermon. Greatest attention was paid to the uniformity of the interior, good acoustics, and visibility from all parts of the church so that members of the congregation could enjoy simultaneous contact with the altar, the pulpit, and the music choir. Martin Luther opened the first Protestant church at the Hertenfels ducal castle in Torgau already on 5 October 1544. The propaganda resonance of the Torgau church became the reason why it turned into a proptype of successive castle chapels in the Reich. Pioneering projects appeared the moment theoretical reflections started dealing with Protestant architecture (e.g. the church in Waltershausen, designed by Wolf Christoph Zorn von Plobsheim from Gotha or the realised projects of Georg Behr and his student Johann Georg Schmidt from the Dresden milieu). The confrontation of the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation did not produce a crisis in art. Both sides employed the most outstanding artists who executed works featuring common features and whose formal diversity still conceals assorted classification problems.
PL
Artykuł powstał w oparciu o przeprowadzone badania historyczne, studia terenowe i analizę dotychczasowych źródeł pisanych. Zgromadzony materiał pozwolił w syntetycznym ujęciu nakreślić przemiany architektoniczno-przestrzenne, jakie miały miejsce na wzgórzu św. Mikołaja (teren byłego opactwa ss. Benedyktynek) w Jarosławiu od okresu wczesnego średniowiecza do początku XXI wieku. Omówione zostały istniejące obiekty, ich formy architektoniczne, zmieniające się funkcje tychże budynków oraz wystrój plastyczny. W artykule uszeregowano w historycznym ujęciu kolejność odnotowanych inwestycji budowlanych oraz rozbudowy, dobudowy, przebudowy i adaptacje obiektów. Autorzy pokreślili również znaczenie i rolę opactwa ss. Benedyktynek w Jarosławiu na tle zmieniających się okresów historycznych. Należy również zaznaczyć, że artykuł ten powinien stać się inspiracją do kontynuacji badań, które w przyszłości mogłyby posłużyć do opracowania monografii dającej pogląd na chronologię zmieniających się nawarstwień architektonicznych na tym terenie.
EN
The article was written on the basis of conducted historical research, field studies and an analysis of written records browsed so far. Collected material allowed for a synthetic outline of architectonic and spatial transformations which took place on the hill of St. Nicholas (he area of the former Benedictine nuns' abbey) in Jarosław from the early medieval period till the beginning of the 21st century. The occurring objects, their architectonic forms, changing functions of those buildings and artistic decor have been discussed here. The article presented the order of recorded building investments as well as extensions, additions, alterations and adaptations of objects, in a historic perspective. The authors also emphasised the significance and role of the abbey of the Benedictine nuns in Jarosław against the background of changing historical periods. It should be also stressed, that the article should become an inspiration for further research which, in the future, could be used for compiling a monograph giving insight into the chronology of changing architectonic accumulations in the area.
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