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The Hungarian nobility represented a specific juridical group in the Danube monarchy until its collapse. This was not due to its historical distinctiveness, since a separate nobility and special nobility regulations existed, of course, in the Bohemian and Austrian lands and, from 1772, also in Galicia, but as a result of the state-law changes implemented in the second half of the 18th and early 19th centuries. Although Maria Theresa ultimately refused to meet most of the demands that the Hungarian nobility had forced on her after her accession to the throne (especially those concerning the independence of the Hungarian administration, the restoration of the territorial integrity of the country, and the obligation to consult exclusively with the local elites on Hungarian problems), the administration of the Hungarian state was nevertheless different. While in the western part of the empire the Bohemian and Austrian Court Offices were abolished in 1749 and a joint central office was established, the Hungarian Court Office remained. This had an impact on the form of the local nobility and the Hungarian population law (indigenat). The Hungarian nobility law continued to differ significantly from the Bohemian-Austrian one – from such minor details as the prescribed official fees or the form of diplomas to the different noble titles. The consequence of this process was the existence of two legally independent noble communities, which were not entirely compatible despite the existence of a common monarchy. The historical differences that existed were then further deepened by the Hungarian government after 1867 in order to strengthen the specific position of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen.
Multiethnic states in Europe are, in many ways, struggling to govern themselves. Belgium, for example, has had trouble forming a government based, in large measure, on rising electoral support for Flemish parties and Walloon politicians who do not trust them. This describes the political situation in a number of countries and since European states are not likely to go to war over constitutional issues, a peaceful resolution to conflict must be found. Peaceful dissolution, therefore, is an alternative to political deadlock between different groups. It is an elite driven process whereby a state is dissolved after a constitutional crisis becomes intractable and the state is dissolved without popular consultation. The examples of Sweden–Norway in 1905 and the 'Velvet Divorce' of Czechoslovakia serve as case studies for the process of how dissolution occurs. Moreover, these cases also showcase how dissolution is different from other mechanisms of self-determination like decolonization, irredentism and secession.
Content available remote Nubijczycy Kenijscy z Kibery. Strategie budowania zbiorowej identyfikacji
tom 96
The majority of Kenyan Nubians inhabit Kibera, a neighbourhood of poverty in Nairobi, considered to be one of the largest slums in the world. The author analyses strategies employed to build collective identification of this community, used in order to survive in the multi-ethnic Kenyan state. Survival is possible because Nubians believe that they form the so-called community. This category relates to a complex set of practices, among which the behaviour of the elites are most important – they apply the discourse of group unity to their members and, particularly, to people from outside the community. This approach supplants cultural diversity of the groups, which used to live separately and which presently assimilate within the community. These intergroup differences are based on practices, which the locals define as sibir. As a result of the social unification policy of the elites it no longer is the most important distinguishing factor of the community. The strategies used to build collective identification of Nubians are based today, on the one hand, on factors stemming from sibir (such as holidays, garments or cuisine), and on the other on “new” values such as a shared history and one religion (Islam) and on their fight for the right to the “own land”, i.e. Kibera.
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