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EN
There are more and more food products on the market that are dietary supplements. It is a huge, growing and lucrative market. The primary purpose of diet supplements is to supplement a normal diet, possible shortages in diet, but this should be done under the supervision of a physician. Unfortunately, Poles rarely consult a doctor, preferring self-treatment. As it results from the inspections carried out, not all products are safe, have the correct composition and quality. In the article, considerations about dietary supplements were related to consumer rights. One of them is consumer education, which is the basis for making rational decisions and not being exposed to the undesirable effects of using, often excessively, dietary supplements. Subject literature and desk research were used for this purpose.
EN
The paper discusses a possibility to grow seeds on solutions of microelements and application of sprouts enriched in such a way as an alternative to commercial dietary supplements. It contains a short review of the approaches reported till now and a systematic experimental study, carried on the most frequently used seeds (Lens culinaris, Helianthus annuus, Vigna radiata, Glycine max, and Lepidium sativum).Seven metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Mn) were studied. Seeds were grown on cellulose in 20°C temperature using deionized water enriched with metals in concentrations: 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.125 mg/L in a period of 4 days. The reference samples were the seeds grown on pure deionized water. Sprouts were mineralized by microwave radiation, and the metal content was quantified by ion chromatography with on-line post-column derivatization and spectrophotometric detection.The conclusions can be treated as general recommendations, which seeds should be grown and what concentrations of metals in solutions should be applied to provide good enrichment and to avoid risk of microelement overdose.
EN
Nowadays, because of irregular lifestyle, high level of stress dietary supplements (DS) are becoming more popular as a source of needful nutrients among millions of people all over the world. The main purpose of present study was to estimate prevalence of dietary supplement consumption in sport, motivation in DS usage and sources of information. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire was spread among students of medical faculty in the end of their fourth year of study. There were 218 students of the fourth year of the Medical Faculty, of which 60.1% were females and 39.9% were males. Males more often used or had been using dietary supplements than females. The most popular dietary supplement was whey protein. The most common aim among men was to build up muscle mass. It is possible to state conclusions that prevalence of using dietary supplement among students is similar to values reported previously in the literature. Males were definitely more often undertaking physical activity in the gym and that could be the reason why they were definitely more often using specific dietary supplements.
EN
Unit packaging of dietary supplements - an inherent element of their manufacturing, without which they would be impossible to market - has numerous interlocking functions to fulfil, including the protective, transport, information, functional, ecological and marketing functions. The information function, however, is one of the priority functions of dietary supplement packaging. In the era of the continual development of online and self-service stores (including pharmacies), such packaging has become one of the key sources of information about dietary supplements' features and properties, while also serving as a brand image creator and a carrier of promotional information. This raises the questions of whether and to what extent the unit packaging of dietary supplements influences the purchasing decisions of consumers, what features and elements of such packaging are crucial for consumers in the purchasing process, and what significance supplement packaging has in the purchasing process against the background of other purchasing determinants. Seeking to address these questions, herein we present selected results of an original study conducted in 2019 with a purposely selected sample of 468 dietary supplement consumers in Poland, whose main purpose was to identify the role and significance of packaging as a determinant of purchase in relation to three selected categories of dietary supplements.
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Introduction. Increasing interest in dietary supplements designed for athletes is accompanied by an increase in the number of commercial vendors offering a broad range of dietary supplements. It is also followed by phenomenon of wide availability and as a consequence universality of application of this group of preparations. The goal of this research project was to assess the use of dietary supplements by players of selected sports with consideration given to sex, age, education, level of physical activity and training experience. Material and methods. The study was conducted using the diagnostic survey method with the aid of a survey written by the authors themselves. The study population consisted of 216 athletes (100 powerlifters and 116 volleyball players) ages 16÷30. Statistical analysis of empirical material was conducted on the χ2 basis of an test (p≤0.05 or higher). Results. A clear majority of subjects claimed to be convinced that diet and dietary supplementation exerted an important influence on their athletic performance. Despite giving their own diet a favorable assessment, more than 95% of respondents reported having difficulty following the diet, while simultaneously reporting the causes of this difficulty. The subjects rated their knowledge of how diet and supplementation enhance athletic performance as either average or very good. Their primary sources of knowledge on this subject were: the Internet, periodicals and promotional materials. The role of trainers, dieticians and physiologists was relatively insignificant. Around 64% of subjects reported general use of dietary supplements, while 72.7% claimed dietary supplementation to have a positive influence on their fitness and efficiency. The popularity of supplement use depended on the character of the athletic discipline. The most frequently used supplements were, in order of popularity: vitamin and mineral preparations, creatine, carbohydrate and protein supplements, BCAA and caffeine. The subjects were convinced that supplements for athletes, despite the various contraindications concerning their use and the presence of substances banned in certain sports, are not harmful to their health. Conclusion. Use of dietary supplements by athletes is universal and depends on the type of sport played.
EN
Due to the changes in modern lifestyle, it is more and more common that not only adults, but also children consume highly processed, unbalanced, ready-made meals. In contrast, the dietary supplements market is constantly enriched with new products that, according to their manufacturers, are to overcome the implications caused by such improper diet. The aim of the study was to assess the state of knowledge and awareness of the use of dietary supplements intended for children, among a select group of parents. The research method employed a questionnaire assessing the level of knowledge and frequency of consumption, with an author's questionnaire serving as a research tool. Conducted within the municipality of Gdynia, in the period between July-September 2017 and April–May 2018, the study comprised a total of 239 persons who are parents of children aged 3 to 10 years. The majority of respondents demonstrated an appropriate level of knowledge and awareness of the use of children’s dietary supplements. The results of the research allowed segregating the study group into parents who contest the basis of administering supplements to children and those who supply their children with supplements in order make up for improper nutrition.
EN
The impact of excipients contained in individual formulations on the pharmaceutical availability of folic acid was investigated. The release rate of the active substance and the disintegration time of the tablets were analysed. It has been found that in the presence of sorbitol, glucose and starch, 100% of folic acid is released within 60 minutes, and in the presence of lactose and starch - 95%, and the release rates for them are 0.0717 min-1 and 0.0555 min-1 respectively.
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A simple and reliable TLC method for analysis of -lipoic acid (LA) with post-chromatographic derivatisation with palladium(II) chloride immersion reagent has been developed and evaluated. Separation of LA was performed on 20 cm × 10 cm RPTLC plates with 2-propanol-methanol-acetone-water-acetic acid 6:4:2:8:0.2 ( v/v ) as mobile phase. Yellow complexes formed in situ were scanned at 375 nm. The migration distance of LA was 43.0 mm. The relationship between peak area and amount of LA applied was evaluated by use of linear (1.0–3.0 µg per band) and second-degree polynomial (0.5–5.0 µg per band) regression functions. The correlation coefficient ( r = 0.999), the limit of quantification (0.39 µg per band), recovery (98.5–105.2%), and precision (1.8–2.9%) obtained by use of the procedure were satisfactory. The method was used for analysis of LA in several drug formulations and selected dietary supplement preparations. The LA content was 99.5–101.0% in the drug formulations, 98.8–99.5% in three of five dietary supplements tested, and 48.0–185.0% in two other dietary supplements.
EN
Bacopa monnieri (Scrophulariaceae) is a well-known plant and has been used by humans for several thousand years. In traditional Hindu medicine, it is one of the most important medicinal plants. The aim of the work was to determine the content of Fe, Mg, and Zn and selected organic compounds before and after extraction into the artificial digestive juices obtained from preparations containing B. monnieri. Commercial preparations in the form of tablets and capsules and B. monnieri shoot cultures were used in the experiment. The metal content in the considered mineralized samples was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and organic compounds by RP-HPLC method. The maximum measured content of the metals released into the digestive juices was as follows: Fe – 32.85; Mg – 367.51; and Zn – 16.41 mg/100 g of the preparation. The existing research shows that metals are best released into the artificial digestive juices from the B. monnieri shoot cultures, and least efficiently from the commercial preparations available in the form of tablets. The phenolic compounds analyzed in the methanol extracts and the extracts of the artificial digestive juices were as follows: protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cynaroside, trifolin, and luteolin. Bacoside A was only determined in the extracts from the B. monnieri shoot cultures. The experimental results revealed that B. monnieri distributed in the form of tablets did not break down in the artificial digestive juices during the considered time intervals.
EN
The aim of the investigation was to review experimental articles and patents referring to corn-based nutritional products for sportspeople published in the period 1970–2019. Publications were searched in the ISI Web of Science and Scopus databases, as well as the Google Scholar and Google Patents internet search engines. Factorial combinations of the keywords (“Zea mays” or “maize” or “corn”) and (“athlete” or “sport”) were applied. Most papers and patents were published in the period 2010–2019 by researchers affiliated to the USA and China – the two largest global producers of corn. Altogether, 65 patents and 16 articles were recorded. Inventors patented food supplements based on corn-derived saccharides and proteins. Empirical articles were devoted to the impact of corn-based food products on health of sportspeople, evaluation of the impact of length of consumption on the metabolism and performance of athletes, as well the frequency of use and acceptance of nutritional products based on corn by sportspeople. Despite growing interest in the application of corn constituents in nutritional products for sportspeople, further investigations are strongly desirable.
PL
Cel artykułu: Identyfikacja cech rynku suplementów diety w Polsce na podstawie czynników determinujących zachowania konsumentów indywidualnych na tym rynku. Metody: Analiza tematycznego piśmiennictwa – licencjonowane bazy naukowe, raporty oraz analizy opublikowane przez instytucje komercyjne i państwowe. Wyniki z badań: Do czynników wpływających na intensywny rozwój rynku suplementów diety w Polsce należą między innymi czynniki ekonomiczne, społeczno-kulturowe, demograficzne oraz psychologiczne. W odniesieniu do tych czynników zidentyfikowano determinanty zachowań konsumentów indywidualnych, do których przyporządkowano cechy rynku suplementów diety w Polsce. Wnioski: Stosowana powszechnie, intensywnie i wielopłaszczyznowo aktywność (zwłaszcza marketingowa) producentów oraz sprzedawców suplementów diety w Polsce spowodowała dynamiczny rozwój tej branży na rynku. Analiza cech rynku suplementów diety w Polsce dostarcza informacji na temat cech tego rynku w odniesieniu do determinant wpływających na zachowania klientów indywidualnych na tym rynku.
EN
Purpose: Identification of the features of the Polish dietary supplements market based on factors determining individual consumer behaviours in this market. Methodology: Analysis of related literature – licensed science databases, reports and analyses published by commercial and state institutions. Results: The factors affecting the rapid Polish dietary supplements market growth include, among others, economic, social and cultural, demographic and psychological factors. In relation to these factors, determinants of individual consumer behaviours were identified and assigned with features of the Polish dietary supplements market. Conclusions: The common, intensive and multi-dimensional activity (especially marketing activity) of dietary supplements manufacturers and vendors in Poland resulted in the dynamic growth of this discipline in the market. The analysis of the features of the Polish dietary supplements market provides information concerning the market’s features in relation to the determinants affecting individual consumer behaviour in the market.
EN
Background. Dietary supplements (DS) are available over the counter, but patients with impaired renal function are specifically at risk for toxicity when consuming certain DS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of DS use in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Material and methods. A cross-sectional, controlled DS use survey (22 questions) was conducted among 180 CKD patients (stage 1-5, dialysis, kidney transplant), with 60 patients without CKD serving as controls. Results. DS use did not differ significantly between subjects with and without CKD, unless the CKD patients were on dialysis. In the CKD group, 20% admitted to use DS regularly and 22% did not take the mat all. In the controls, DS consumption was 17% and 13%, respectively (NS). The DS use was higher among women ascompared to men (89% vs. 70%; p < 0.005), and people living in cities versus those living in the country side (81% vs. 63%; p < 0.05). DS most commonly used were: vitamins, minerals, and herbs. Major indications for DS use included: musculoskeletal issues, general health improvement and prevention of urinary tract infections. Subgroup analyses revealed that dialysis patients were characterized by a significantly higher DS use in comparison to CKD stage 1-5 subjects and renal transplant recipients. The decision to introduce DS was made by the physician in 54% of cases; by a pharmacist in 9% of cases, and by the patients themselves in 37%. Only 21% of patients with CKD, and 27% of subjects without CKD, declared knowledge of any possible side-effects associated with DS (NS). Conclusions. The use of DS among patients with CKD is similar to patients without CKD, with the exception of those on dialysis. Vitamins and minerals were the most commonly reported DS consumed. The knowledge on potential side-effectof DS was limited to approximately one-fourth of those surveyed.
EN
Objectives To assess dietary supplements, functional foods and nutraceuticals use among the patients after myocardial infarction (MI). Material and Methods The authors prospectively enrolled 100 consecutive patients hospitalized due to MI and remaining under coordinated outpatient care after MI in the authors’ cardiology department. Results The authors showed that patients within median (interquartile range) 12.30 (10.18–14.57) months after MI use dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and functional foods in their everyday diet. Vitamins (53% patients), especially vitamin D (35%), were the most frequently used dietary supplements. In contrary to common usage of dietary supplements (59%), smaller proportion of patients use functional foods (21%) and nutraceuticals (5%), especially phytosterols. The authors found that the use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and dietary supplements is associated with age (participants <60 years old vs. participants ≥60 years old: OTC drugs: N = 8 [20.0%] vs. N = 32 [53.3%], p < 0.001; herbals: N = 3 [7.5%] vs. N = 16 [26.7%], p = 0.019), sex of the patients following MI (females vs. males: vitamins: N = 17 [70.8%] vs. N = 36 [47,4%], p = 0.045; vitamin D: N = 13 [54.2%] vs. N = 22 [28.9%], p = 0.024; omega-3 fatty acids: N = 3 [12.5%] vs. N = 1 [1.3%], p = 0.042; herbals: N = 8 [33.3%] vs. N = 11[14.5%], p = 0.040), as well as the BMI of the participants (BMI < 24.9 vs. BMI ≥ 25.0: multivitamin/ multimineral dietary supplements: N = 3 [15.0%] vs. N = 31 [42.5%], p = 0.035; vitamin B6: N = 1 [5.0%] vs. N = 21 [28.8%], p = 0.035). In the study group all participants with the age above retirement age have already withdrawn from professional activity and they more often used OTC drugs (N = 14 [25.9%] before retirement age vs. N = 26 [56.5%] above retirement age, p = 0.002). Conclusions The patients following MI use supplements, functional foods and nutraceuticals. Their use depends on sex, age, BMI and professional activity. The authors believe that their potential beneficial effects require further evaluation in clinical longitudinal studies.
EN
ObjectivesThis study aimed to explore the self-care strategies undertaken by Polish nurses, and more specifically: to assess the participants’ self-care strategies; to check self-medication patterns in the study group; and to analyze compliance with medical recommendations regarding pharmacotherapy.Material and MethodsA quantitative and cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the phenomenon of interest. The study employed a questionnaire survey with an independently designed questionnaire as a research tool. A total of 446 registered nurses taking part in different professional training courses for nurses in January–June 2018 who agreed to participate were included in the study.ResultsThe findings of this study reveal generally poor self-care strategies and compliance with medical recommendations among Polish nurses. The most frequent health behaviors among the surveyed nurses were caring for personal hygiene and a healthy diet. About 31% of the nurses confirmed supplements use. The most common reasons for taking supplements concerned the prevention of vitamin and mineral deficiencies (77.5%), and boosting of the immune system (49.3%). The most popular supplements included packs of vitamins (57.2%), single vitamin D3 (33.3%) and magnesium (31.2%). The vast majority of participants (79.8%) took some kind of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) in the last 6 months, most often painkillers and flu medications, relying most frequently on the information included on the drug leaflets. The analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between declared OTC use and age, marital status, years of professional experience and economic status. Overall, 26.9% of the study participants declared the use of both supplements and OTCs, while 16.4% of the participants used neither supplements nor OTCs.ConclusionsSelf-care strategies undertaken by nurses should be seen as an essential factor in their positive therapeutic relationship with patients. The ageing nursing workforce should make all of us increasingly aware that their self-care needs will increase as well.
EN
Professional drivers are exposed to a number of factors that have a negative influence on their health status. These include vibrations, noise, the lack of fresh air in the car cabin, shift work (frequently at night), monotony resulting from permanent repetition of certain actions, static loads due to immobilization in a sitting position, stress resulting from the need to ensure safety in heavy traffic, as well as air pollution (dust, volatile organic substances, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dioxins, furans and others). Factors associated with the specificity of the profession of a driver, including exposure to chemical substances, result in an increased risk of the development of many diseases, i.e., obesity, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi drivers, lung cancer and other forms of cancer. In the case of drivers, especially those covering long distances, there are also actual difficulties related to ensuring a proper diet. Although attempts at interventional research that would change the principles of nutrition, as well as ensure physical activity and weight reduction, have been made, their results have not been satisfactory. The paper focuses on the discussion on the role of a diet and dietary phytochemicals in the prevention of adverse health effects of such chemicals as a mix of chemicals in the polluted air, benzo(a)pyrene, benzene and metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel), which are the main sources of exposure in the case of transport workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(4):441–64
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Content available Możliwości zastosowania biomasy alg w rolnictwie
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PL
W przedstawionej pracy opisano algi (mikro- i makroalgi) jako nowy surowiec dla rolnictwa, którego potencjał nie został jeszcze do końca wykorzystany. Algi stanowią wyzwanie dla zrównoważonego rolnictwa. Znane są z bogactwa składników odżywczych i stosowane są jako suplementy diety. W nowoczesnym rolnictwie mogą zostać wykorzystane w żywieniu zwierząt jako nośniki mikroelementów. W pracy przedstawiono przykłady zastosowania alg w żywieniu różnych gatunków zwierząt. Drugim kierunkiem wykorzystania alg w rolnictwie jest ich zastosowanie jako nawozy oraz środki ochrony roślin. W pracy przedyskutowano wpływ alg na glebę oraz rośliny (działanie jako fizjoaktywatory i biostymulatory). Ponadto, interesujące wydaje się być wytwarzanie ekstraktów glonowych, mogących stanowić nawóz dolistny lub doglebowy dla roślin.
EN
The present study describes algae (micro- and macroalgae) as a new raw material for agriculture, whose potential has not been fully exploited yet. Algae are a challenge for sustainable agriculture. They are known for their rich content of nutrients, therefore are used as dietary supplements. In modern agriculture, can be used in animal nutrition as carriers of trace elements. The paper presents examples of the use of algae in the nutrition of different animal species. The second direction of the use of algae in agriculture is their use as fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. The paper discusses the impact of algae on the soil and plants (acting as physioactivators and biostimulants). In addition, the production of algal extracts, which may constitute foliar fertilizer for plants or fertilizer applied to the soil seems to be very interesting.
EN
Glutathione (GSH) is a endogenous , low molecular weight thiol compound. It has a wide spectrum of biological activity in the body. It is an important element of the antioxidant system that protects cells against the effects of oxidative stress. As an antioxidant, GSH inactivates free radicals and reactive forms of oxygen and nitrogen in enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions, regenerates other antioxidants, e.g. vitamins C and E, maintains - SH groups in proteins in a reduced state, participates in the detoxification of xenobiotics. The decrease in GSH concentration occurs in many diseases and in the aging process. Increasing the level of GSH in the body's cells is possible by consuming dietary components containing GSH or amino acids (especially cysteine) for its endogenous synthesis and supplementation with GSH pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of the study was to characterize dietary supplements available in Poland containing glutathione (GSH). The analysis covered 39 supplements from GSH, which were available in Poland. Their characteristics include: place / country of production; type of preparations (single and multi-component); bioavailability of GSH contained therein - preparations in the liposome formula (lipophilic GSH) and in the non-liposome formula (non-lipophilic GSH); pharmaceutical form in which these preparations were available on the commercial offer and GSH content in supplements. Among 39 GSH supplements, there were 24 single-component and 15 multi-component preparations. The largest number of GSH supplements available in Poland came from the USA and Great Britain. Among GSH supplements, there were 15 liposome (lipophilic) formula preparations, of which 12 were lipophilic one-component and 3 multi-component and 24 non-liposome (non-lipophilic) formula preparations - 12 single and 12 multi-component. Capsules, gel, liquid and tablets were the most common pharmaceutical form among all analyzed GSH supplements. The rarest pharmaceutical form was lozenges, aerosol, powder and ampoule. Analysis of GSH supplements available in Poland showed that in one single dose of the preparation was from 18 mg to 750 mg GSH. The most common dose was 250, 450 and 500 mg GSH in a single dose. One-component supplements most often contained 450 mg, then 250 and 500 mg GSH, while multi-component supplements - 250 mg GSH.
PL
Glutation (GSH) jest niskocząsteczkowym związkiem tiolowym, który wykazuje szerokie spektrum biologicznej aktywności. Jest ważnym elementem systemu antyoksydacyjnego chroniącego komórki przed skutkami stresu oksydacyjnego. Jako antyoksydant GSH unieczynnia wolne rodniki i reaktywne formy tlenu i azotu, regeneruje inne antyoksydanty np. witaminę C i E, utrzymuje grupy –SH w białkach w stanie zredukowanym, bierze udział w detoksykacji ksenobiotyków. Obniżenie stężenia GSH występuje w wielu schorzeniach. Zwiększenie poziomu GSH w komórkach organizmu jest możliwe poprzez spożywanie składników diety zawierających GSH, czy aminokwasy (szczególnie cysteina) do jego endogennej syntezy oraz suplementację preparatami farmaceutycznymi z GSH. Celem pracy była charakterystyka dostępnych w Polsce suplementów diety zawierających w swoim składzie glutation (GSH). Analizą objęto 39 suplementów z GSH. Ich charakterystyka uwzględnia: miejsce/kraj ich produkcji; typ preparatów (jedno- i wieloskładnikowe); biodostępność zawartego w nich GSH - preparaty w formule liposomowej (lipofilny GSH) i w formule nieliposomowej (nielipofilny GSH); postać farmaceutyczną preparatów oraz zawartość GSH w suplementach. Wśród 39 suplementów z GSH było 24 preparaty jedno- i 15 wieloskładnikowych. Największa liczba suplementów z GSH pochodziła z USA i Wielkiej Brytanii. Wśród suplementów z GSH było: 15 preparatów formuły liposomowej (lipofilnej ), z czego lipofilnych jednoskładnikowych było 12, a wieloskładnikowych 3 oraz 24 preparaty formuły nieliposomowej (nielipofilnej) - 12 jedno- i 12 wieloskładnikowych. Najczęściej występującą postacią farmaceutyczną wśród wszystkich analizowanych suplementów z GSH były kapsułki, żel, płyn i tabletki. W pojedynczej dawce preparatu znajdowało się od 18 mg do 750 mg GSH. Najczęściej znajdowało się 250, 450 i 500 mg GSH . Suplementy jednoskładnikowe najczęściej zawierały 450 mg GSH, natomiast wieloskładnikowe 250 mg GSH.
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