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EN
The purpose of this paper is to specify the chronology of the regressive rhythmic law according to which the Proto-Slovak long roots of Stang’s accentual paradigm AP (b) regularly shortened when followed by the suffix -ár. The proposed sound law operated in Proto-Slovak, before the definitive fixation of the stress on the initial syllable in Slovak and before the Slovak Rhythmic Law.
EN
The booklet “Zpráva pjsma slowenského” (1696) is a result of T. Masnicius ś experience during his exile in western Europe, where he came to understand that the Slovaks, being one of the Slavonic people, were unknown. He wrote this elementary introduction to the Slovak language, which is almost identical with the traditional Czech of that time. In addition, he called out more competent authors to continue this task and to produce better compendia. In this way, a concept of a literary language, called lingua slavico - bohemica arose. This impulse was developed in the methodologically pivotal Grammatica Slavico – Bohemica by Pavel Doležal (1742) and methodologically continued in all of the following grammars of Slovak and Czech, including the grammars of Czech by J. Dobrovský and of Slovak by A. Bernolák and Ľ. Štúr. In this way, the identity of Slovaks and Slovak language were generally accepted.
Slavica Slovaca
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2009
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tom 44
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nr 1
69-74
EN
The authoress deals with linguistic transfer in learning Slovenian language in Slovakia and above all with the negative linguistic transfer from Slovak language into Slovenian language on all linguistic levels, especially when both linguistic systems are different.
EN
We try to answer the question: When does the reflexive marker “sa” accompanying a verb present the clitic form of the pronoun “seba”? Linguists do not share a common view whether the Czech and Slovak constructions “verb + reflexive marker sa”, both in the type “umývať sa”, and in “vidieť sa/hodnotiť sa”, are to be considered as demonstrations of syntactic reflexivity (syntactic constructions with a reflexive pronoun), lexical reflexivity (reflexive verbs with derivative morpheme), or whether they are of the same nature at all. Considering the results of a modified commutation test (possibility/impossibility to substitute the reflexive “sa” marker by a pronominal expression “sám seba”), we came to the conclusion that the expressions within the type “vnímať sa” represent syntactic constructions (predicate + object) where the respective “sa” marker (object) has a pronominal status.
EN
The paper looks on the persona of a writer from the Age of Reason, who had a leading role in the cultural life of Slovakia J. I. Bajza in context with new research. The chosen objects of research belong to the exposition of his literature and biography in Dolné Dubové. The author compares her results with archival articles, which publish present findings in scientific literature.
EN
Representation and placing of negation together with a construction of clauses and order of the sentential components belong to main indicators of separation and idiomacy of the phraseology regarded in this paper. The author analyses Slovak phraseological fund and describes types of sayings involving negation and defines their typology.
Slavica Slovaca
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2009
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tom 44
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nr 1
5-12
EN
From a long time ago researches have been done in the historical linguistic and dialectology and they will always remain as a part and meaning of national identification, especially in time when the searching for national identity has got a support in the natural, uncontrolled language development and when it respects a past experience. Semantic analysis of vocabulary in dialects of particular Slavonic languages after a complex area elaboration - for instance in the Slavic Linguistic Atlas project - gives a testimony to differentiation as well as integration features of examined items with surrounding language environment. On several illustrative examples, such as 'dedina' (village), 'strom' (tree), 'hora' (forest), the author points out the constants that are permanent identifying features of Slovak language and that, in course of natural development from a supra-dialect sphere in the pre-standard period, have become constituent parts of the contemporary standard Slovak language.
EN
The author points out that Samuel Cambel in his work Rukoväť spisovnej reči slovenskej puts the conception of quantity on the Middle Slovak character of quantity and that he based on the fundamental unity of the quantity with a regulation of its appearance in word by the rhythmical law. Another important fact is that Cambel placed the function of the rhythmical law to the sphere of word-formation and inflection and the place of quantity neutralization he saw in a word-formative or grammatical suffix of word. Cambel also pointed out cases where in the same word more long syllables follow one after another – he gave five such examples. The author pays attention to some cases of use and non-use of rhythmical law and takes up a critical stand on opposite interpretations of the Cambel ś perception of the rhythmical law.
EN
The paper outlines the development in the field of investigation of Slovak word-formation in recent 25 years (1989 – 2014). The paper covers dominant areas in this field, i.e. a theory and methodology (e.g. the concept of word-formation motivation), functions of word-formation motivation, word-formation of verbs, adjectives, adverbs, compounding, the tendency towards internationalization, word-formation adoption of loan words, lexicographic treatment of Slovak word-formation and morphemics, word-formation of proper names, the role of word-formation and the investigation of symmetries and asymmetries in the cross-linguistic study, the role of word-formation in a text etc. These aspects of word-formation are dealt with in the works by J. Furdík, J. Horecký, K. Buzássyová, M. Nábělková and others.
10
Content available remote Ewolucja świadomości językowej Czechów po 1989 roku
100%
Bohemistyka
|
2016
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tom 16
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nr 2
169 - 180
EN
This paper is devoted to the formation of the linguistic awareness of the Czechs after 1989. Rapid changes in the linguistic and paralinguistic reality of the past 25 years are associated with the Velvet Revolution and the division of Czechoslovakia. The most important changes in the linguistic awareness of the Czechs after 1989 are the gradual increase in the social acceptance of the colloquial language and lack of objection against the progression of brutalization of the language of public debate. This can be interpreted as the disappearance of the need to aestheticise the language and also as an aversion to, in its broadest sense, the Czech language culture. The most important change, however, seems to be a lack of awareness that the society is bilingual and that Czech-Slovak communication within the society is possible.
EN
The authors of this sociolinguistic oriented study explore the contemporary state of the Slovak language in hospital communication in its graphic and acoustic form. On the basis of acquired written communication (prepared or unprepared) and acoustic recordings of unprepared speeches, they attempt to find out the contemporary diction of the respondents, and especially linguistic-stylistic nature and communication function of the vocabulary used in dialogues between the physicians and patients, as well as in monological texts. Besides, the study focuses on the characteristics of the hospital communication environment (S. Kukura: Hospital in Michalovce) divided into internal (professional, without the participation of the patient) and that with accommodations (with the participation of the patient).
EN
This article aims to present an empirical investigation of six- to seven-year-old children’s free word associations in Slovak. The empirical data analysed in this article were collected via lexical decision task, a method used within the qualitative research design. The data analysis indicates the syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift in children’s word associations to stimulus nouns. In syntagmatic response to stimulus noun, the children produce either free verbal sequences or defining characteristics of a stimulus word (activity characteristics and descriptive attributes). In paradigmatic response to stimulus noun, the children produce semantically diverse associations, mostly in the following semantic categories: location or local proximity, inclusive parts, more distant meaning, word-formation paradigm, and coordinates. Despite the research limitations, the present results are consistent with the previous research findings in the field of children’s word associations in both Slovak and other languages.
EN
Lexicology as the study of the lexical vocabulary of the Slovak language was not at the forefront of the journal’s interest in the first two decades of its existence. The primary focus was put rather on the aspects of orthography and practical morphology, i.e. inflection. The theoretical basis of this subject only became a focus of interest after WWII. The peak of the theoretical definition of lexical semantics, which is the focus of this study, is associated with the name of J. Dolník. He eventually synthesized his partial studies published in journals in the monograph “Lexikológia” (1st edition 2003, 2nd edition 2007). The study also pays attention to the theoretical background, debates, and practical applications related to the approaches to lexical classification.
EN
This paper is based on a principle that the language is always in a continuation with its previous state. The Historical Dictionary of Slovak Language, whose seventh volume was finished in the 2008, can be seen as a clear evidence of this. The dictionary includes a vocabulary from pre-literary period, i.e. from 11th up to 18th century, until the first Slovak literary language codification performed by Anton Bernolak. The authoress of the paper provides an analysis of the vocabulary of pre-literary period as well as characteristics of the Slovak language starting off an occurrence of Slovakims in the Latin texts and ending up with the Slovak language pre-literary forms, the so-called Cultural Slovak of 16th - 18th centuries. The paper also presents influences of several other languages such as Czech, Latin and German etc. on Slovak. Furthermore, the authoress compares the whole anterior period of Slovak language development with a contemporary period, showing the similarities as well as differences.
EN
The main topic of this contribution is germanisms which used to be, or still are, used in the Slovak language. The first part clarifies the notion of language contact, which is the basis of the formation of germanisms (and other transposed words). The next chapters show particular examples of germanisms, divided according to a variety of aspects – the semantic aspect, the Slovak dialects aspect, temporal and geographic aspect and finally the aspect of various language levels. The conclusion describes the possibilities and assets of the usage of germanisms in the teaching process of German language in schools.
Slavica Slovaca
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2004
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tom 39
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nr 2
132-136
EN
In his paper, the author examines a possible implementation of the lexeme 'predat' ' endowed with the meaning 'hand over' into the Slovak lexical inventory. Leaning on instances of this lexeme in Slovak historical sources and with regard to its development in other Slavonic languages, the author comes to the conclusion that the said meaning must be considered as new and out-of-system in the Slovak language. Investigation into existence of this phenomenon in other Slavonic languages as well as into the meanings of the lexeme in Old Slavonic shows that the Slovenian, Polish, Upper and Lower Lusitian languages exhibit more or less the same situation, while the South and East Slavonic languages along with Czech make up a separate isogloss characterized in its development by the prefixes 'pro-, pre-, or pere-'.
EN
This paper was presented as an opening reading at the colloquium devoted to the 100th anniversary of Henrich Bartek, one of the greatest Slovak linguistics authorities of the thirties and forties of 20th century. After his emigration from Czechoslovakia in 1945, the life and work of Henrich Bartek became unknown to the Slovak linguistic circles. Nowadays the knowledge of Bartek's work made remarkable progress, but there are still topics worth to explore. The author of this reading focused his attention to some Bartek's controversy views of Slovak language and he confronts them with some views of the contemporary Slovak linguists.
Slavica Slovaca
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2008
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tom 43
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nr 2
97-107
EN
Do Cyrillic Paraliturgical Songs Belong in the Context of Slovak Culture? The paper discusses some issues of linguistic research concerning Cyrillic texts of Eastern Slovak provenance. Phonetic, morphological and lexical examples are adduced that attest to the influence the Slovak language environment exerted on the texts.
Slavica Slovaca
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2005
|
tom 40
|
nr 2
158-166
EN
Based on the critical analyses of monographic work written by Wroclaw's slavist Jaroslaw Lipowski named 'Convergence and divergence of Czech and Slovak languages in Czechoslovakia' (Wroclaw, 2005) the author writes about the relations of Slovak and Czech language in 20th century. The traditional slavistic question is treated on the background of the generally accepted knowledge that Slovak and Czech are two structurally and genetically different but close Slavonic languages. In exploration of the subject matter author pays special attention to methodological questions. .
EN
The paper focuses on the analysis of literary critical reception of Slovak Vojvodina literature in Slovakia written in the second half of the 20th century and the early 21th century. It examines the literary critical articles written by Slovak authors that were published in Slovakia´s literary magazines (Slovenské pohľady, Slovenská literatúra, Romboid etc.) and also partly in the Slovak magazine Nový život published in Serbia, as well as in some critics´ compilation books. The great emphasis is placed on the reconstruction of the causes, the methods and the pace of, as well as the people involved in restoring the severed relations between the two forms of the same literature, i.e. that written in Slovak language, while what is mainly analysed is the changes in the status of Slovak Vojvodina literature (from that in the region to that in the enclave) and their impact on the relations between Slovak Vojvodina literature and all-Slovakia literature. Close attention is paid to the authors who did or have done literary critical research into Slovak Vojvodina literature in the most systematic way (Peter Andruška, Viliam Marčok, Dalimír Hajko, Oliver Bakoš, Etela Farkašová) and who did or have done their share in the full integration of Slovak Vojvodina literature into the all-Slovakia literary context.
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