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Content available remote Primary prevention of nephropathy in obese type 2 diabetic patient
We report a case of a 36-year-old obese man who presented with newly onset diabetes mellitus type 2 and hypertension. The estimated value of glomerular filtration rate - 203.7 ml/min was associated with the patient being at high risk of developing progressive renal disease. In this case, in order to prevent nephropathy, the preferred therapy was a gradual bodyweight reduction. A low-calorie diet providing an 800 kcal/day deficit was recommended to the patient, as well as an increase in physical activity. After a total weight reduction of 50 kg (33% of initial bodyweight), the patient’s glomerular filtration, body mass index, and blood pressure normalized without any drug therapy. Glucose, blood pressure and lipid target levels can only be simultaneously achieved through body-weight reduction. In the presented case, we show the beneficial effects of bodyweight reduction, and dietary and physical activity changes on high glomerular filtration rate. Bodyweight reduction stops the cascade of events that are caused by glomerular hyperfiltration and the progression toward irreversible renal damage.
Content available remote Predictors of diabetic nephropathy
Open Medicine
tom 8
nr 3
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients representing a huge health and economic burden. Alarming recent data described diabetes as an unprecedented worldwide epidemic, with a prevalence of ∼6.4% of the world population in 2010, while the prevalence of CKD among diabetics was approximately 40%. With a clinical field hungry for novel markers predicting DN, several clinical and laboratory markers were identified lately with the promise of reliable DN prediction. Among those are age, gender, hypertension, smoking, sex hormones and anemia. In addition, eccentric left ventricular geometric patterns, detected by echocardiography, and renal hypertrophy, revealed by ultrasonography, are promising new markers predicting DN development. Serum and urinary markers are still invaluable elements, including serum uric acid, microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (u-LFABP), and urinary nephrin. Moreover, studies have illustrated a tight relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and the development of DN. The purpose of this review is to present the latest advances in identifying promising predictors to DN, which will help guide the future research questions in this field. Aiming at limiting this paramount threat, further efforts are necessary to identify and control independent modifiable risk factors, while developing an integrative algorithm for utilization in DN future screening programs.
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