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Współczesność, pomimo braku utrudnień instytucjonalnych i z nieograniczonymi możliwościami technicznymi, generuje zupełnie inną gamę problemów, z którymi borykają się włodarze tych już prawie półwiekowych świątyń. Ich stan techniczny i zupełnie zrozumiała dekapitalizacja infrastruktury powoduje konieczność remontów, napraw, a te implikują pytania o wartość zabytkową obiektów. W całym zasobie odziedziczonych świątyń tylko te najwybitniejsze, wpisane w historię architektury współczesnej, nie wywołują wątpliwości, iż są cennymi reliktami i należy je zachować według wszelkich zasad konserwatorskich.
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Contemporary times, despite no institutional restrictions and unlimited technological possibilities, generate a range of completely different problems which have to be addressed by the owners of the nearly half-a-centuryold churches. Their technical condition and deterioration of the infrastructure call for renovation and repairs, which entails asking questions about the historic value of the objects. Of all the places of worship dating from the 1970s and the 1980s, only the most remarkable ones, those which go down in history of contemporary architecture are unquestionably considered valuable relics to be protected according to conservation rules.
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The conservation of fish stocks in the world’s exclusive economic zones (EEZs), which collectively harbour the vast majority of marine-living resources, is the primary responsibility of coastal States. As the effects of failures by coastal States to protect those stocks from the impacts of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing may extend beyond domestic boundaries, this paper questions whether and how coastal States may be made accountable in respect of their regulatory deficits. With the proliferation of non-legal conduct rules to guide the regulatory role of States and their agencies, non-judicial mechanisms have the potential to foster coastal State stewardship of domestic fisheries. Outlining a number of international, transnational and domestic approaches, this paper gives consideration to the opportunities and limitations they present in order to strengthen coastal State accountability for IUU fishing control deficits.
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The study and diversity of freshwater prawns are of great importance due to growing interest in biodiversity and its relative abundance. The present study was carried out for a selected stream divided into three different habitat types: namely, pond, run, and riffle. The study was focused on the diversity and abundance of prawns. To make it more systematic, a transect was laid upon the stream and it was divided into 30 plots with 100 m intervals. Metapenaeus rosenbergii, Penaeus japonicas, and Metapenaeus insolitus were species recorded in the pond habitat type only. The Penaeus genus was the most prominent in the study area while the genus Metapenaues was the least abundant. The diversity of freshwater prawns was found to be highest in the pond rather than the run and riffle. Documented information for prawn populations in Bhutan is sparse. Therefore, there is a wide research gap regarding prawn diversity in Bhutan. This study will help to establish a baseline data for the prawn distribution in the proposed study area. The present study will serve as a reference guide for future researchers.
PL
W pracy opisano problemy związane z konserwatorskim remontem elewacji kościoła Mariackiego w Katowicach. Po blisko 140 latach od wybudowania obiekt doczekał się kompleksowej renowacji. Prace podzielono na kilka części: wymieniono pokrycie dachu i wzmocniono konstrukcję drewnianej więźby dachowej, oczyszczono i wyremontowano wieżę, w wieży zabudowano 3 nowe dzwony, a w ostatnim etapie renowacji poddano główną bryłę kościoła. W czasie remontu odtworzono ponad 30 wielkogabarytowych kamiennych elementów wystroju architektonicznego, a w miejscach uszkodzeń lub ubytków zastosowano kilkuset nowych ciosów kamiennych.
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In the paper the problematic issues of conservatory rebuilding of the elevation of the Mariacki Church, which is located in Katowice, were presented. After almost 140 years since the church had been built, the complex conservatory rebuilding of the elevation was carried out. The works were divided into several stages. The first part included replacement of the roof covering and reinforcement of the rafter framing. The second part was to renovate the walls of the tower, and now the works of the third part are being conducted†ń the renovation of the outside walls of the main structure.
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W ostatnich latach obserwujemy duże zainteresowanie architekturą okresu międzywojennego w Polsce. Jednakże daje się zaobserwować powszechne niszczenie charakterystycznych, identyfikujących ją elementów wystroju i kształtu architektonicznego.Spowodowane jest to głównie brakiem wiedzy na temat jej kulturowego znaczenia w kształtowaniu wizerunku miast okresu międzywojennego oraz brakiem skutecznych form ochrony konserwatorskiej architektury tego okresu. Praca omawia stan zachowania technicznego architektury modernistycznej z okresu międzywojennego w Polsce i przedstawia stosowane metody konserwacji obiektów z tego okresu, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem sposobów właściwej konserwacji. Na przykładzie wybranych obiektów architektury z Centralnego Okręgu Przemysłowego przedstawiono aktualny stan konserwacji architektury modernistycznej w Polsce.
EN
In last years in Poland we may observe a great interest in the architecture of the interwar era. However, there may be noticed a widespread destruction of typical architectural elements and details that identify this architecture. It is mostly caused by lack of knowledge of its cultural importance in shaping the vision of the cities of the interwar era, as well as by lack of successful forms of conservatoris protection of modernistic architecture. The article presents the actual technical state of preservation of modernist interwar architecture in Poland and shows methods of conservation of such objects, in particular the right methods. The examples of architecture built in COP (Central Industrial District) demonstrate the present state of modernistic architecture conservation in Poland.
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Od kilku lat w Pałacu Wilanowskim i jego otoczeniu są prowadzone na dużą skalę prace konserwatorskie i restauracyjne. Zadania konserwatorskie podjęte na elewacji Pałacu, ścianie oporowej i wnętrzach Pałacu były pilnie potrzebne, uwzględniając zły stan zachowania Pałacu i długoterminowe plany pełnego odrestaurowania Pałacu do jego poprzedniej świetności. Aspekt współpracy jest decydujący dla wielu aktualnych zadań konserwacji. Wewnętrzny zespół specjalistów konserwacji Muzeum regularnie współpracuje z zewnętrznymi ekspertami i podwynajętymi z zewnątrz kontrahentami. Warto wspomnieć rozmaitość funduszy, skutecznie pozyskanych z Programów Operacyjnych UE, jak również od Ministerstwa Kultury i darów Dziedzictwa Narodowego.
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Large-scale conservation and restoration work hasbeen in progress for several years in the Wilanów Palace and its surroundings. The conservation tasks undertaken on the Palace facades, the retaining wall and the Palace interiors were badly needed, given the Palace's poor state of preservation and the long-term plans to fully restore the Palace to its former glory. The cooperation aspect is crucial for many of the current conservation tasks. The Museum's in-house team of conservation specialists regularly cooperates with external experts and outsourced contractors. Worthmentioning is the diversity of funds, succesfully taken from EU Operating Programs, as well as from Ministry of Culture and National Heritage donations.
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The article summarizes 70 years of Polish research on archaeological textiles. Their beginning was associated with the discoveries of textiles during the Millennium research of the 1950s and 60s. Textiles were then studied above all by A. Nahlik, but also A. Urbańska, A. Niesiołowska-Wędzka, and J. Stanclik. In the 1970s and 1980s, the author was the only researcher of archaeological textiles in Poland (ones from the Roman period, as well as from the Middle Ages and the Post-Medieval period). Since the 1990s, M. Grupa and A. Drążkowska have dealt with textiles and clothing, mainly from crypts. In the 21st century at the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences centre in Łódź, a team for research on old textiles (J. Maik, A. Rybarczyk, J. Słomska, Ł. Antosik) was established that cooperates in the study of the structure of textiles with textile industry employees (M. Cybulska), while in the study of dyes with chemists (M. Biesaga). This enables us to fully show the human – the creator, producer, and user of textiles.
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Content available Wild bee decline and conservation in North America
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Pszczoły – to niezwykle różnorodna i ważna grupa owadów; około 4600 gatunków pszczół występuje w Ameryce Północnej. Dzikie pszczoły „świadczą usługi” w zakresie zapylania roślin, a ich działalność jest prawdopodobnie nawet więcej warta niż działalność pszczół miodnych na całym świecie. Są one słabo zbadane na większości obszarów, ale na terenach, dla których mamy wiarygodne dane, liczebność ich populacji obniża się. Wynika to głównie z przekształcania obszarów półnaturalnych na grunty rolne, a nowsze dane wskazują również, że pszczoły miodne mogą także wpływać na ich populacje. Aby zachować istniejące populacje pszczół, należy ustalić siedliska zapylaczy, w celu zachowania różnorodności dzikich zapylaczy w krajobrazach wiejskich i miejskich. W miarę jak populacja ludzi rośnie wraz z zapotrzebowaniem na produkcję rolną, musimy znaleźć sposoby „współpracy” z dzikimi zapylaczami i sposoby zachowania dla przyszłych pokoleń tysięcy gatunków pszczół, które żyją w Ameryce Północnej.
EN
The most prominent issue in the field of fisheries management is the choice between the wellbeing of the fishermen and the promotion of conservation, either in an ecosystem level or as species−specific approach. However, recently, there has been a general shift towards a more holistic approach, through which both goals may be achieved, without sacrificing one in favour of the other. The ecosystem approach is supported by a large proportion of the academic community as the solution to avoid conflict between livelihoods and conservation. In the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site, the local stakeholders have managed to bridge the gaps through extensive consultation and, supported by the Japanese local and national governments and various academic institutions, have established a coordinating network of organisations, in order to build consensus among the stakeholders and adopt the ecosystem approach. As representatives from most stakeholder groups participate in the collaborating institutions, the interests of various sides, including tourism, fisheries, reforestation, agriculture, citizens, scientists and environmental groups, are voiced and supported during the decision−making process. The Shiretoko Natural Heritage Site Management Plan has made significant achievements, by adopting viable trade−offs between conservation, fisheries management and tourism, resulting in a sustainable and largely self−funded conservation scheme. The example of Shiretoko could function as a best case practice for many countries worldwide that face the same problem, especially insular ones, in order to achieve sustainable fisheries without sacrificing marine conservation.
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Content available remote The phenomenon of the military cemetery in Galicia
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The article analyzes the main military cemeteries found in Galicia, their types, forms, ideological affiliation and state of preservation. Preventive measures for the preservation of historic military cemeteries are proposed and the possibility of forming new ones is considered.
EN
Some centuries ago, the city of Guanajuato was divided into neighborhoods in which a beneficiation hacienda was generally located. Various activities related to mining and metallurgical work were carried out, a predominant characteristic in the region such as quicksilver and the casting of metals. With the passage of time, these beneficiation haciendas were subdivided, the families of the workers remained on the farms adjacent to the big house (where the owner of the quicksilver or head of the smelter lived), and gave up their place to heritage public spaces which are visited and admired today by the tourism sector. In some cases, the land use changed, and in others it continues to be the predominant use in the area. Another no less important factor is the observable state of conservation, because, although there are few buildings whose infrastructure does not receive the attention they should, it does not affect the popularity enjoyed by the space in question.
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System ochrony zabytków w Polsce istnieje sto lat. Jest to okazja do podsumowania jego dorobku, oceny obecnej sytuacji w ochronie zabytków oraz sformułowania prognoz. Całościowe spojrzenie na system ochrony zabytków wskazuje, że ocena jego dorobku i perspektyw powinna być dokonana w czterech aspektach. Po pierwsze trzeba ocenić zrozumienie i wsparcie społeczeństwa dla ochrony zabytków. Po drugie trzeba ocenić system ochrony zabytków działający w strukturach współczesnego państwa. Po trzecie trzeba ocenić podstawy teoretyczne ochrony zabytków. Po czwarte trzeba ocenić wykorzystanie i gospodarcze funkcjonowanie zabytków. Z kolei w perspektywie czasowej zasadne jest wydzielenie trzech okresów: dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, okresu PRL, okresu po transformacji rozpoczętej w roku 1989. Analiza dokonań i systemu ochrony zabytków powinna być dokonana z uwzględnieniem wyszczególnionych zagadnień i okresów. Analiza ta pozwala stwierdzić, że kluczowe zasady funkcjonowania systemu ochrony zabytków w Polsce zostały określone 100 lat temu, w pierwszych regulacjach prawnych.
EN
The system of monument protection in Poland has existed for a hundred years. It is an occasion to sum up its achievements, to evaluate the current situation in monument protection and to formulate predictions. An overall view of the monument protection system indicates that an assessment of its achievements and perspectives ought to be conducted in four areas. Firstly, social awareness and support for the monument protection concept should be assessed. Secondly, the monument protection system operating within the structures of the contemporary state should be evaluated. Thirdly, the theoretical basis for monument protection needs to be assessed. And fourthly, the use and economic functioning of monuments has to be evaluated. From chronological perspective it is reasonable to distinguish three periods: the twenty-year inter-war period, the period of the PRL (Polish People’s Republic), and the period after the transformation commenced in 1989. An analysis of achievements and the monument protection system should be conducted considering the listed issues and periods. Such an analysis allows for stating that the key functioning principles for the monument protection system in Poland were established 100 years ago, in the first legal regulations.
EN
The planned exhibition on Elżbieta Sieniawska, the second owner of Wilanów, provided an opportunity to conduct a comprehensive conservation and restoration of the exquisite work by Martino Altomonte, the painting St Roch Visiting the Sick. The painting, which in the past underwent several renovations, was reinforced with a lining of new canvas. Its composition regained its former aesthetic quality as the old re-paintings were removed and the missing fragments reconstructed. Physical and chemical analyses carried out using modern analytical equipment and techniques, including the noninvasive analyses, were an important part of the works undertaken by the Museum. The previously published results of the analyses of two other canvases by the same painter, The Battle of Vienna and The Battle of Párkány, made it possible to compare the painterly techniques applied by the artist at various stages of his creative career. The compositions of all paintings executed on coloured primers were first developed in the yellow ochre and grey tones, and then quickly finished in colours applied in two to three layers. Paints used by Altomonte contained primarily pigments obtained from natural coloured clays. Modified binding agents containing chicken egg and linseed oil enabled Altomonte to obtain the desired thickness of paint and to achieve the projected painterly effects. The hitherto technological analyses of the painting made it possible to establish further topics for future research projects. The issue of Altomonte's use of blue pigments is especially noteworthy. In his earlier works, those were various types of smalt and, to a limited extent, indigo and azurite. In the later period, the pigment he used was most probably Prussian blue, possibly indigo as well; this would need to be confirmed by a broader array of instrumental analytical methods. Apart from the blue pigments, the identification of ramie fibres in the canvas offers another interesting research topics. The use of ramie in European painting supports dating from the first half of the 18th century may become a topic for future exploration. The Italian-educated Martino Altomonte was very deliberate in his use of diverse methods and means of artistic work. In addition, at the basis of his adroit use of varied painterly matter lay his abilities as a draughtsman evident from his surviving sketches and painting designs. Sketch-like painterly presentations were also a characteristic element of his work.
EN
Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam. is a medicinal plant that has crossed tribal, provincial and national boundaries in recent times, with its use and domestication cutting across different ethnic and geographical borders of the world in general and Nigeria in particular. In view of this observation, this present study was aimed at examining the contributing factors to the high diversity of this much prized economic and medicinal species in Nigerian gardens. The survey was conducted among 17 populations, from which a total of One Hundred and Four respondents were purposively drawn from the wards that make-up the Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State. The purposive technique allowed at least 6 individual respondents to be randomly selected from each ward, based on their interest in home gardening, and their attached importance, domestication and accessibility to MO. The approach thus provided the opportunity to obtain an understanding of its medicinal importance, side effects and possible need for conservation. The respondents, who are of different backgrounds, were interviewed using semi-structured questions. Data collected were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using descriptive statistics. The results of the study revealed that 50% of the respondents were home gardeners, while 40% are without gardens, although 80% showed the desire to own same. Also, 80% believed home gardens should provide food (Vegetables, spices and fruits etc.) and herbs (health-care). Over 95% of respondents claimed to have information about or cultivated Moringa, and 89% of them agreed to the important roles of agencies, as well as the media (radio, newspapers, etc.) in the dissemination of relevant information about this species. Moreover, close to 90% also have access to the plant from different sources: own garden (25%), friends’ or neighbors’ garden (44.2%) or market (13.5%), while 13.5% patronize all these sources. The part(s) mostly used are leaves & flowers (52.9%), followed by all parts (21.2%) and pods (seeds) (19%), while stem and bark are least employed (1.9%). In addition, a majority of respondents claimed that Moringa has solved some of their health concerns (64%) and thus, recommended it to someone or vice-versa (80%) with 65% claiming, no side effects. Consequently, many widely endorsed the conservation of MO and other MAPs (80%), with over 60% alluding to individuals, and government as major players in this responsibility. We conclude, therefore, that gardens, particularly home-based, play a valuable role in the conservation of not only the plant emphasized in this study, but many other useful plant species, most especially medicinals, that have become the cornerstone of health delivery in most developing nations. This study, therefore strongly recommends the strengthening of this strategy.
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Content available “Open for conservation” : live experiences
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The need to show to the public issues related to conservation of cultural properties first became clear in the eighties during the great projects conducted in the Roman forum. Three major conservation innovations were introduced at that time: documentation became part of the contract specifications; consolidation was performed using slaked lime; the worksite scaffolding was opened to non-specialists. The way in which the documentation is realized is an indicator of the quality and professionalism of a program. This should incorporate a communication plan, to promote and raise awareness among the public about the instances related to the conservation of cultural heritage. This article addresses the communication principles applied to conservation interventions.
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Aleksandra Joanna Młynarska in the paper Is the conservation of post-German inscriptions on tenement houses an example of a change in thinking about the heritage and history of urban space in Poland? analyzes the issues of painted shop signs and wall inscriptions in German, created in the first half of the Twentieth century in Western Poland. A difficult historical context – the post-war change of Polish borders, the resettlement of the German population from the Western and Northern Territories, attempts by the post-war Polish authorities to obliterate all post-German traces and the fear of the return of German descendants living in today's Polish territory affect the contemporary reception of the studied group of objects. German-language wall inscriptions are sometimes the target of acts of vandalism and deliberate destruction, and at the same time documentary studies are made about them and are a destination for alternative urban tourism. The problem of a dual attitude towards this group of objects is reflected in the ongoing conservation works. A questionnaire was analyzed, carried out at the Voivodoship Offices for the Protection of Monuments and the Municipal Monument Conservators in western and northern Poland, which shows the amount and location of conservation-restoration of post-German painted shop signs in Poland. The study of the issues of the stratigraphic structure of the paintings as well as the techniques and technology of their creation constitute the basis for researching the issues of their conservation and restoration. Although the damage characteristic of this group of objects coincides with the typical damage of wall painting, their significant feature is the particular exposure to external and atmospheric destructive factors. Particularly dangerous threats include the action of infiltration and capillary water, microbiological attack and the effects of human activity in the form of gases and dusts highly concentrated in the city and, consequently, the phenomenon of acid rains. Their effects affect not only the conservation and restoration process, but also the materials used in the work.
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Content available remote Sustainability or fun? : recreational angling in Marine Protected Areas
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Gökova Bay MPAs (southern Aegean Sea, Turkey) include six different no-take zones (NTZs: Akyaka, Çamlı, Akbük, Boncuk-Karaca, İngiliz Limanı, Bördübet), in four of which shore angling is permitted (Akyaka, Çamlı, Akbük, Boncuk-Karaca). This study determined the total catch and size of fish caught in the Akyaka MPA during recreational fishing. In total, fish representing 22 species belonging to 10 families were caught and most of them were smaller than their length at first maturity. The projection showed that the total catch weight reached significant values for recreational angling in the Akyaka MPA. The results of this study indicate that recreational angling may pose a threat to both MPAs and no-take zones, causing them to deviate from their primary conservation goal due to the harvesting of juveniles by recreational anglers.
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This article is about conservational and study works on the enclosure of an old cystercian abbey in Krzeszów, that were made after the Second World War. Post-war history of conservation of this monument exhibits two periods. The first one covers 50 post-war years, where only routine maintenance was done. The latter period began at the beginning of the XXI century. Since then fragments of the building were renovated piece by piece. Current cultural and touristic needs were taken into consideration.Revalorization of Krzeszów Abbey in years 2007-2008 and since 2014 revealed the basements and relicts of the groundfloor of the south and west wings of the complex. At the same time the architectural studies were made, resulting in new conclusions of transformations of this building.
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