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Introduction: Female genital mutilation is a practice that causes devastating physical, psychological, and social consequences for girls and women. Female genital mutilation is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.Purpose:To examine whether women are appropriately protected against female genital mutilation under Polish criminal law, in particular, whether a special criminal offence should be created.Materials and methods:The international legal acts, reports and other online available data related to female genital mutilation have been examined. The provisions of the Polish Penal Code and the relevant regulations of English criminal law have been analysed. Moreover, judgements of the Polish courts and the literature have also been the subject of research.Results:In Poland, there is no special legislation on female genital mutilation. However, female genital mutilation is punishable under general criminal law provisions. Female genital mutilation is a criminal offence and can be prosecuted as a form of grievous bodily injury or as a form of bodily injury and impairment to health.Conclusions:Alegislative action is needed to ensure that acts of female genital cutting are criminalized irrespective of the place of their commission. The Polish criminal lawmaker should make female genital mutilation exempt from the condition of double criminalization.
This article explores Leila Ahmed’s A Border Passage, and Nawal El Saadawi’s Memoirs from the Women’s Prison, A Daughter of Isis, and Walking Through Fire. It contrasts their works and argues that location and genderawareness play an important role in the writing of autobiographies. The focus is on showing how El Saadawi’s positioning as a feminist activist in Egypt and Ahmed’s location in the USA determine the texts’ themes and shape the construction of the autobiographical “I.”
In 1929-30, British missionaries active in central Kenya sought the help of the British colonial government in banning and eventually eradicating the Gikuyu tradition of female circumcision. This was met by an uproar amongst the Gikuyu population, many of whom protested in the form of the Muthirigu dance song, giving rise to what is known as the ‘female circumcision controversy.’ Contemporary sources demonstrate the numerous contributions to the debate on the issue, including from missionary societies, colonial officials, British women, and Kenyan men, who all incorporated the controversy into their various agendas, be it concern for women’s health on the missionary’s part; anxiety of colonial officials over the impact of circumcision on Kenya’s long-term population growth; worry for their ‘sisters’ by British women Members of Parliament; or concern about Western infringement on Gikuyu traditions on the part of Kenyan men. What is most noticeable is the absence of Kenyan women’s voices in the sources on the matter, in spite of the fact that this was an issue about their own bodies. This article examines the different ways in which Kenyan women’s voices were silenced on the issue, and attempt to retrieve their voices from the sources available. In doing so, the article seeks to demonstrate the general tendency to silence African women in history and in historical epistemology.
The clash of traditional Arab society with the modernity in a form of colonization served as a source of tremendous confusion. The novel Voices (1972) by Egyptian writer Sulayman Fayyad is the first Arab novel which approaches the topic of the interaction between “Us” and “The Others” in a completely different way. The Voices are unprecedented metaphor of the relationship between “Us” and “The Others” and unlike any other novel before it harshly criticizes the backwardness and the obscurantism of some Arab-Egyptian traditions and celebrate the advancement of “The Others”. It is also a rare testimony of the atmosphere in Arab world after the defeat of the united Arab armies in so called Six Day War in 1967.
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