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Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2022
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tom 77
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nr 6
408 – 426
EN
Isidore of Seville in On the Nature of Things XI, 1 presents the threefold nature of the four elements: fire is acute, subtle and mobile; air is subtle, mobile and obtuse; water is mobile, obtuse and corpulent; earth is obtuse, corpulent and immobile. This (Neo-)Platonic teaching on elements is based on Plato’s dialogue Timaeus. Isidore’s On the Nature of Things was relatively often copied in the middle ages. In many manuscripts we can find an illustration to the part XI, 1 of the treatises, usually called the figura solida (according to geometrical ratio), demonstrating the aforementioned qualities of all four elements. The depiction of the figura solida is very different among the surviving manuscripts. The paper focuses on various drawings of the figura solida in the manuscripts. The main aim of this paper is to show how these various versions of the figure can be interpreted (especially within the context of Calcidius’ commentary to Timaeus) as an illustration of Platonic teaching on the nature of the elements.
EN
The paper deals with the intervention of rational explications in the theological discussions in Early Scholasticism (inspired by some of the scholars around 1000, among them Gerbert of Aurillac or Fulbert of Chartres). The main aim is to shed light on the interpretation of God's omnipotence by Peter Damiani (in his famous open letter' De divina omnipotentia') and Anselm of Canterbury (especially in his works 'Proslogion', 'De libero arbitrio' and 'Cur Deus homo?') and to show how: Aristotle, Hieronymus, Augustine and Boethius influenced their way of thinking.
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Content available remote LETTER ON TIMEKEEPING OF GERBERT OF AURILLAC TO BROTHER ADAM
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EN
This paper focuses on the letter, written by Gerbert of Aurillac (Pope Sylvester II) in the late 980s, which was addressed to Brother Adam who is otherwise unknown to us from other sources. Gerbert’s text deals with the problems of timekeeping and it naturally uses professional astronomical and geographical terminology and concepts which were necessary for timekeeping during this period. Although our contemporary knowledge of Brother Adam is lacking, this paper sets out to analyse the letter and to reconstruct the individual fragments of teachings which had to be available to the recipient of the letter. This paper thus focuses on some topics of the medieval (inspired by antiquity) geocentric view of the organization of the Cosmos together with the basic categories of geographical division of the Earth and, at the same time, the paper is trying to draw attention to the fact that such concepts could have been the part of elementary knowledge of an educated individual by the end of 10th century.
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Content available remote Dva astronomické dopisy papeže Silvestra II
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EN
The paper focuses on the astronomical interests of one of most well-known fi-gures of the end of the tenth century Gerbert of Reims (ca. 940/50–1003; a monk in Aurillac, scholasticus in Reims, abbot in Bobbio, illegitimate archbishop of Reims, archbishop of Ravenna and Pope Sylvester II). The paper analyses two of Gerbert’s letters. The first of them (De sphaera addressed to Constantine of Fleury) was probably written around the year 980 and presents the construction and setting of the unique observation hemisphere. The second letter (to brother Adam) was written during the spring of 989. It deals with timekeeping and includes practical instructions for determining the longest presence of sunshine in a particular location. Both letters were addressed to highly educated readers and an analysis of their content allows for an illustrative understanding of certain aspects of medieval geocentric astronomy of the late tenth century.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2018
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tom 73
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nr 7
566 – 579
EN
The paper deals with the dialectical dimension of the dialogue De grammatico written by Anselm of Canterbury during his stay in the Abbey of Le Bec. This dialogue between the teacher and the student addresses the question: How Grammaticus is both a substance and a quality? In his work De veritate Anselm described the dialogue De grammatico as an introduction to dialectics. The paper tries to show how this Anselm’s dialogue could serve as an explanatory introduction (a textbook) to this liberal art. It seems that the main source of Anselm’s understanding of dialectics was six Boethius’s books called Commentaries to Cicero’s Topica. Therefore, the article presents basic characteristics of dialectics according to the above mentioned Boethius’s treatise (e.g. dialectics as inveniendi et iudicandi argumenti with the help of definitio, partitio and collectio; the description and components of an argument; the importance of the question in a dialectical disputation etc.), while the text of Anselm’s dialogue De grammatico is confronted with those Boethius’s theses.
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