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EN
Workaholism became a universal notion. It extended beyond studies of psychotherapists and the narrow circle of people feeling its negative consequences. The article is describing the occurrence of workaholism from a point of view of organization, considered as one of possible types of the long-term work. It presents the typology of organizational behaviours related to workaholism, associated with an excess work. The typology allows for diversifying workaholics from other people who show similar patterns of behaviour.
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nr 3
53-65
EN
This article reports the results of a preliminary study testing the model of personal determinants of workaholism. In particular, the aim of this study was to identify factors and mechanisms responsible for work addiction.The Polish adaptation of the 'Work Addiction Risk Test' authored by Robinson and Phillips was used to assess workaholism (Wojdylo, 2005). The social approval was assessed with the 'Questionnaire of Social Approval' (Drwal & Wilczynska, 1980). The level of autodetermination was measured with the Ozarowski 'Personality Questionnaire' and the discrepancies within the self-concept (actual self own versus ought self other) were assessed with a scale designed by Wojdylo (2004). The level of emotional intensity was assessed with the Scale of Positive and Negative Affect PANAS (Watson et al., 1988), in a Polish adaptation by Brzozowski, whereas the orientation towards aims achievement was measured with the questionnaire authored by Elliot and Church (1997). Statistic analyses revealed that the extrinsic motivation (attainment of favorable judgments of competence, the need for social approval in the domain of competence-related behaviors) and the motivation to avoid failure (avoiding unfavorable judgments of competence) were particularly associated with a workaholic activity. Workaholism was positively related to self-determination in the domain of intelectual competence-related behaviors and negatively to self-determination in the domain of emotional competence-related behaviors. The results also revealed that the best predictors of work addiction (among 5 variables used in the regression model) were negative affect and energetic arousal. This study shows that the mechanism responsible for workaholism is regulated by the orientation towards aims achievement that includes a simultaneous need to avoid unfavorable judgements (e.g. failure) as well as a need to attain favorable judgments (e.g. judgements of high competence). The relationship between workaholism and the high level of negative affects and the energetic arousal suggests that workaholism may be a strategy aiming to reduce negative affect and to maximize energetic arousal. These results also implicate that positive affect as well as energetic arousal are two categories distinguishing a healthy form of the engagement in work (work enthusiasm) from its pathological form (workaholism).
3
Content available HAZARDS IN THE MANAGER'S WORLD
51%
PL
Celem artykułu jest przeanalizowanie współczesnych zagrożeń organizacyjnych, z którymi borykają się menedżerowie. Autor koncentruje się na pięciu niebezpiecznych obszarach, takich jak: przeciążenie informacyjne, toksyczny sukces, praca ekstremalna, wypalenie zawodowe i pracoholizm oraz przepracowanie.
EN
The aim of the article is to analyze the organizational hazards that managers must contend with today. The author concentrates on five danger areas that may serve as a warning to prospective and current managers. Firstly, the profession of manager is packed with stress, where informational overload has become one of the most dangerous stressors of recent years. Secondly, a skyrocketing imperative to strive for success, irrespective of any negative consequences, is causing managers to take the path of 'toxic' success. Thirdly, there is the growing readiness among managers to take up 'extreme' jobs. Fourthly, an increasing number of managers suffer from 'job burnout' as well as work addiction-workaholism. Fifthly-the most tragic consequences-there are cases of death from overwork. Analysis and reflection on this map of managerial hazards facilitates a distancing from changing organizations and their requirements.
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