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Content available remote The Economic Thought of Late Spanish Scholastics
The paper analyzes the economic thought of the late Spanish scholastics and shows that they have made a meaningful contribution to the development of economics. It aims at proving that these authors deserve the name of originators of the scientific economic knowledge. The literary output of the 16th century's Spanish thinkers includes, apart from theological and juridical texts, also reflections on economic problems that, by their substance and nature, have been ahead of many economic conceptions. The reflections developed by the Spanish scholastics make the germ of progressive thoughts and ideas considered today as free-market and liberal. Their reflections also present sometimes very radical appraisal of certain phenomena and suggest a just, from the point of view of moral philosophy, solution to the difficulties that appear in the economic life. The paper starts with considerations that describe this group and bring nearer their times whereas its main part is a presentation of the most important economic ideas of the representatives of the Spanish scholastic economics. Then, the perception and appraisal of their output in the economic literature are presented. The links between the scholastic economics and the Austrian school of economics are discussed as well
In the recent years the term 'social capital' has come into wide use in many different social sciences. Recently has been also growing interest in links between social capital and economic performance. It has become common for economic theorists and researchers to observe and analyze the trust, social networks, social norms and voluntary associations. It is claimed that social capital is a complementary factor to other forms of capital that may help to explain the different levels of prosperity and different rates of economic development among countries. Paper surveys research on social capital in Poland. Article critically reviews the Polish theoretical studies on the role of social capital; the author explores concepts of social capital in Polish economic and sociologic literature. Paper also provides investigations of empirical research on the social capital in Poland. This part of analysis is mainly based on two surveys: 'Diagnoza Społeczna 2005' and bulletins of CBOS. The author argues that while the Polish economic literature has started to produce both theoretical insight and empirical research on social capital, a number of conceptual and statistical problems exist. This is a cause to continue the efforts.
Цель исследований состояла в разработке метода изоляции лимфоцитов из периферической крови разводимых лисиц и выполнении розеточного теста ЕА. Показано, что наиболее пригодным к изоляции лимфоцитов из периферической крови лисицы является градиент фикол-урополин густотой 1,074—1075 г/см³. Наивысший процент лимфоцитов, образующих розетки ЕА, отмечено в условиях 30 мин. преинкубации в темп. 22°С и 30 мин. инкубации в 4°С. Не показано статистически существенных разниц в числе клеток образующих розетки ЕА, в зависимости от породы, пола и видa сыворотки, примененной против кровяных телец барана. Средний процент лимфоцитов в рецептoрoм с в периферической крови синых и серебристо-черных лисиц возрастом 1—3 лет составляет в среднем 9,08±1,96.
The purpose of the work was to elaborate a method of lymphocytes isolation from the peripheral blood of breeding foxes and to perform the rosette test EA. It was found that Ficoll-urupoline (ensity from 1,074 to 1.075 g per 1 ml) was most proper for lymphocytes isolation. The heighest percentage of lymphocytes forming EA rosettes was observed at 22°C preincubation for 30 min. and later incubation at 4°C for 30 min. No statistically significant differences were found concerning the number of cells forming EA rosettes in relation to the breed, sex and kind of serum used against sheen erythrocytes. A mean percentage of lymphocytes with Fc receptors in the peripheral blood of blue and silver foxes aged 1—3 years, was 9.08±1.96.
Immunogenicity of six strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. granulosum isolated from arctic foxes with ringworm was evaluated in guinea pigs and foxes. Two strains of T. mentagrophytes (Tm-3 and Tm-4) out of six examined (Tm- 1, Tm-2, Tm-3, Tm-4, Tm-5 and Tm-6) induced in the experimental foxes a strong cellular immune response measured by the leukocyte migration inhibition test (LMIT), lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), and by skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). The guinea pigs immunised with Tm-3 and Tm-4 were well protected against the artificial infection with the virulent strain of T. mentagrophytes (Tm-9). These two strains of T. mentagrophytes with high immunogenic properties were used for production of a vaccine against ringworm in foxes.
Content available Choroba Schmallenberg - nowe dane
Content available Chorobotwórczość wirusa Powassan
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