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Content available Genetyczna odpornosc zwierzat na choroby
Disease resistance of the animals may be improved using both, the conventional (marker assisted selection) and genetic engineering methods. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) can use genetic markers as indices of resistance to diseases. The markers may be devided into exterior traits (e.g. udder and teat conformation – mastitis), determined by serological tests (erythrocyte antigens - leukaemia., MHC antigens - mastitis, leukaemia and tuberculosis in cattle, nematode infection in sheep, Marek's disease in poultry) and molecular analysis of DNA (loci encoding intestinal receptor for K88 and F18 Eschericha coli, MHC genes - mastitis and leukaemia in cattle). Conventional methods should be preferable in improvement of existing resistance mechanisms while the genetic engineering methods (e.g. transgenesis) can be used to introduce into livestock genomes the genes controlling resistance to diseases.
Content available Fuzarioza klosow pszenicy
This reviev of Fusarium head blight (FHB, scab) of small grain cereals describes as Fusarium a large and complex disease. Species causing FHB are adapted to a wide range of habitats all over the world. Fusarium species may infect the host plants at seedling, heading and flowering stages. Fusarium head blight is one of the most severe diseases of small grain cereals. It is caused by several pathogenic species of this genus, mainly F. culmorum, (W.G.SM.) SACC., F. graminearum and F. avenaceum. Recently, FHB has re-emerged as a major disease of wheat in the USA, Canada and other countries. Scab can lead to yield losses, poor grain quality and accumulation of several mycotoxins in infected kemels, husks and rachises. Changes in traditional agricultural practices during last decade - minimum or no-tillage, elimination of proper crop rotation with increased monocrop farming as well as a low resistance level among popular cultivars-are considered tobe reasons of FHB. Resistance to FHB is horizontal, polygenic. Effects of dominant genes probably influence the FHB resistance, but additional effects appear to be important, and resistance genes can be accumulated. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of resistance to FHB have been preliminarily mapped on following chromosomes: 1B, 2AL., 3BS, 3A, 5A and 6B. Growing of wheat cultivars resistant to above-mentioned pathogens is the most economic, environment-friendly and effective method of disease control.
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