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Content available From the Editors An Invitation to Debates
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Content available Jerzy Szacki 6 lutego 1929 – 25 października 2016
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Jerzy Szacki 6 February 1929 – 25 October 2016
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W związku z rolą jaką przykładamy do analizy społeczności lokalnych w tworzeniu projektu zmian ustrojowych na poziomie państwa i narodu w artykule zwraca się uwagę na konieczność uwzględnienia trzech najważniejszych kontekstów teoretycznych jakie stanowić mogą źródło socjologicznej interpretacji danych gromadzonych w badaniach na poziomie lokalnym. Pierwsza z perspektyw jest ramą podmiotową, druga ramą ograniczonych utopii, natomiast trzecia ramą społecznych emocji. We wszystkich wymienionych perspektywach teoretycznych Autorka eksponuje konieczność traktowania społeczności lokalnej jako jednostki z jednej strony charakteryzującej się specyficznymi cechami, a z drugiej jako elementu szerszego układu społecznego w skład którego wchodzi. W artykule podkreśla się konieczność łączenia analiz lokalnych prowadzonych w polskiej socjologii z bardziej ogólnymi teoriami transformacji społeczeństwa polskiego. Za szczególnie przydatną w tym względzie uznaje autorka koncepcję krytycznej socjologii transformacji A. Rycharda.
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In relation to the meaning attributed to local communities analysis in creation of the plan of systemic changes at the level of the state and the nation, the authoress calls attention to three crucial theoretical contexts which may be a source of sociological interpretation of data collected in the local level research. The first perspective is the subjective framework, the second - the framework of limited utopias and the third - social emotions framework. In all theoretical perspectives mentioned the authoress exposes the necessity of local community as an entity characterized by specific features on the one hand and as an element of wider social system that is national (state) and European societies, on the other. She perceives the necessity of combining local analyses conducted within the Polish sociology with more general theories of transformation of the Polish society. A. Rychard's conception of critical sociology of transformation is claimed to be particularly useful to that purpose.
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This paper treatises Polish sociology of borderlands (mostly Eastern) as the rich resources of metaphors of borders, especially national and political ones. It shows how these metaphors are linked to different sociological imagery-modern and postmodern. Its aim is to reconstruct analytical strategies and research projects from this sub-discipline, focusing on metaphors of borders. These strategies and projects are based on very different approaches to metaphors. The first operation is an instrument which the theoretician uses to reconstruct the theoretical typology of borders and borderlands. The second operation is a tool which the researcher uses to reflect more deeply on the empirical data concerning individual and collective reactions to borders and borderlands. The third operation is a narrative tool used by examinees who inhabit the borderlands. The paper provides a broad and intensive discussion of the functions of different metaphors about borders in relation to the different intellectual approaches to problems of borderlands and borders. It stresses the needs for equal treatment in Polish sociology of borderland problems of borderlands and problems of national borders. Especially emphasizes the positive functions of academic interest in borders metaphors in this scientific treatment. Generally speaking, this analyse enhances many links between sociology of borderlands and cultural anthropology and is closely connected to the question of where these intellectual operations on metaphors belong in the project of an interdisciplinary approach to borders and borderlands.
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The aim of the article is to show how national leadership is articulated in modern and postmodern social experience and is rooted in current social and political reality. The author constructed types of national leadership and projected duties and entitlements for a national leader role. Th e aim is to present a flexible set of educational duties and entitlements, and not to present the coherent structure of ideas similar to systemic national ideology. On the basis of a national experience project the author presents the national leader role as sensitive to different types of knowledge.
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Content available remote The bifunctionality of silica gel modified with Congo red
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Silica gel was chemically modified with Congo red and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. The pH-sensitive immobilized Congo red retains the same properties as its solution counterpart and could be applied as solid indicator. The functionalized silica gel was also employed to extract different cations from water solutions. The concentration of cations extracted was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The solid support is able to selectively extract silver and copper from water solutions and retains its properties after treatment with different organic and inorganic solvents. [...]
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Content available remote Chemistry for nanotechnology
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In recent years, the processing order during the synthesis of new chemical compounds has been redefined. Until now a chemist considered primarily receiving a new compound and only then searched for its potential application. The new philosophy of proceedings forces chemists to answer the question: what physical and chemical properties a new chemical compound must have, and what should be structured. After that it has to be planned how to get the compound including the defined budget. The compounds obtained by conventional chemical synthesis are then used to create new functional materials having the properties as scheduled. The paper presents the way of the proceedings from a molecular receptor to a new nanomaterial containing this receptor, so in other words from individual molecules to new material with specific and previously planned properties.
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Silica surface was modified with phenylboronic acid derivatives. The structures of the functionalized supports were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, 13C CP/MAS NMR spectrometry, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. The solid supports were effectively applied as artificial receptors for sugars in aqueous solutions. Alizarin Red S. (ARS) was used to detect colour change upon carbohydrate (sugar) binding. The association constants of the supports studied-ARS complex and the functionalized silica-sugar (glucose) complex were calculated. The parameters obtained were comparable with those for the phenylboronic acids used for the silica gel modification. The competitive binding of the functionalized silica surface with ARS and sugar were studied by UV/VIS measurements. [...]
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Content available remote Epoxy resin modified with amine as an effective complexing agent of metal cations
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A simple synthesis of a material capable of metal cation removal is proposed. The material was a derivative of epoxy resin containing amine groups. It is insoluble in water and in this study it was characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The sorbent obtained was tested for its ability to remove coper(II), cadmium(II) and lead(II) from water solutions. The tests were performed for different concentrations of metal ions (10–200 mg L−1) and at different pH (2.0–9.0). The effects of temperature and stirring time, as well as reusability of the sorbent were also studied in batch experiments. In the optimum conditions, the decrease in the cation concentration in aqueous solutions was observed in the order Cu>Pb>Cd but for each ion the decrease was at least 50% of the initial concentration. The sorbent has demonstrated high effectiveness in cation sorption and after regeneration it can be applied repeatedly in the process described. [...]
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Content available Obituary. Jerzy Szacki
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The results of the research studies concerning the binding of heavy metals (HMs) by quartz sand functionalized with amino silanes have been described. The studies have been carried out on soils sampled from the areas affected by emissions from Copper Smelter and Refinery. The research aims to increase the food safety in the areas of industrial impact. The presence of polyamine chain in the hybrid materials obtained enables a binding of heavy metals (nickel, copper, cobalt). The best results are observed for the hybrid material having four amine groups (four coordination centers) per molecule. For this material the highest content after two extraction cycles (pH 7.0 and 5.0) is observed for copper (98.2%), but for other ions (nickel, cobalt) it is at least 85% of the initial amount of components available for plants.
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Silica surface was modified with quaternary ammonium salts to give three matrices of different chain length. The synthesized supports were characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy, as well as scanning electron microscopy and semi-empirical parametric method 5. Their exchange capacities for ClO4−, F−, NO3− and CH3COO− ions were investigated by conductometric titration. The amount of exchanged chloride ions from the matrix was studied for different initial anions concentration. The functionalized silica gel showed very good ability of perchlorate ions exchange from the water solution in room temperature. The anion-exchange properties were also studied in comparison to different number of reactive sites in the matrices. The increased number of chloride at the silica surface took effect on increased ability of ClO4− anion exchange [...]
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The results of the research studies concerning binding of heavy metals and arsenic (HM+As), occurring in soils affected by emissions from Głogów Copper Smelter and Refinery, by silane nanomaterial have been described. The content of heavy metals and arsenic was determined by AAS and the effectiveness of heavy metals and arsenic binding by 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane was examined. The total leaching level of impurities in those fractions was 73.26% Cu, 74.7% – Pb, 79.5% Zn, 65.81% – Cd and 55.55% As. The studies demonstrated that the total binding of heavy metals and arsenic with nanomaterial in all fractions was about as follows: 20.5% Cu, 9.5% Pb, 7.1% Zn, 25.3% Cd and 10.89% As. The results presented how the safety of food can be cultivated around industrial area, as the currently used soil stabilization technique of HM by soil pH does not guarantee their stable blocking in a sorptive complex.
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Content available remote Copper removal by carbon nanomaterials bearing cyclam-functionalized silica
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The synthesis of metal (Fe, Co, Ni)-encapsulated carbon nanomaterials coated with cyclam-bonded silica has been described. The organic layer was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The functionalized magnetic nanomaterials were employed to extract the divalent cations: copper, calcium, cobalt, manganese and nickel from aqueous solutions. Their adsorption capacities were studied by the batch procedure. The concentration of cations extracted was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Influence of different parameters viz. pH, amount of the compound studied, contact time, on the cation extraction was investigated. Under optimum conditions copper extraction was significantly more efficient when compared with other coexisting ions. [...]
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Content available From the Editor
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Content available From the Editor
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