Previous research has indicated that laypeople, students and legal professionals often hold flawed beliefs about memory, and the present study sought to extend this area of research to the teaching profession. Are teachers’ beliefs about learning in line with the scientific consensus? A set of vignettes with contrasting options for classroom practice were presented to trainee (n = 77) and in-service (n = 44) teachers, and in each case a 7-point Likert scale prompted them to predict which would be the best course of action in terms of student outcomes. As hypothesized, responses were often out of line with research on ‘desirable difficulties’ in memory and learning such as retrieval practice, spacing, and interleaving, with choices indicating a lack of awareness of these evidence-based approaches, although they were more accurate than previous studies of students. Surprisingly, accuracy of response did not correlate with the duration of a teacher’s classroom experience; trainee teachers outscored in-service teachers in certain areas, suggesting that recent familiarity with technical literature on learning could be advantageous.
Monitoring in Preschool Children Fades with the Calibration Feedback Higher fluid intelligence leads to better accuracy in metacognitive monitoring, but in school age this influence is moderated by the child’s development and education. The goal of the study is to examine the interaction between fluid intelligence and performance feedback or calibration feedback on monitoring accuracy in 88 preschool children. The children in the group that received performance (PF) or calibration feedback (CF) were significantly more accurate at monitoring than the children without feedback (NF). Fluid intelligence correlated with monitoring accuracy for the whole dataset and explained 49% of variance in monitoring accuracy in the NF group; 26% in the PF group (feedback alone explained 20%) and only 12% in the CF group, not reaching significance (however, feedback alone explained 26%). Results indicate that calibration feedback could potentially fulfil the role of later education and development in improving monitoring accuracy and moderate the effect of fluid intelligence already in pre-schoolers.
We focused on the effect of various types of feedback in a game-based fluid reasoning test called Triton and the Hungry Ocean on elementary school students (ages 8-12; total N = 321). The feedback types were four: no feedback (A), simple (correct/wrong feedback; B), elaborated (correct solution shown; C), and learner-controlled feedback (student chooses between feedback types; D). We did not observe an effect of any feedback type on performance (i.e., there were no between-group differences). However, within group D, students overall tended to choose elaborated feedback more often as task difficulty increased (r = .92), and those in group D who generally tended to choose elaborated feedback also tended to perform better even after controlling for intellect.
The basic aim of this research is to examine the mediating role of perceived stress between metacognition and happiness. The participants were 290 university students. In this study, the Metacognition Questionnaire-MCQ-30, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Short Form of Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The relationships between meta-cognition, perceived stress, and happiness were examined using correlation analysis and Structural Equation Model (SEM). In correlation analysis, metacognition and perceived stress were found to be negatively related to happiness. On the other hand, metacognition was found to be positively correlated to perceived stress. Structural Equation Model showed that metacognition results in an increase in perceived stress in an unhappy person, whereas reduction in stress leads to happiness; however, metacognition also produces unhappiness. Results were discussed in the light of the related literature.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between metacognition and grit. Participants were 352 university students who were enrolled in Sakarya University, in Turkey. In this study, the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and the Grit Scale were used. The relationship between metacognition and grit were examined using correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. In correlation analysis, grit was found positively related to metacognition. According to results the two-dimensions of grit (consistency of interest and perseverance of effort) predicted metacognition positively. Results were discussed in the light of literature.
In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that correct responders are at a metacognitive advantage compared to intuitively incorrect responders because they are aware that there exists an appealing but incorrect response that many would fall for. A total of 169 participants solved three CRT tasks, followed by questions about the perceived difficulty of the tasks and the most probable incorrect response that others gave. The results mainly confirmed the hypothesis: the more correct responses (or the less intuitive responses) participants gave, the more they were correct about the most prevalent incorrect responses of others. Furthermore, the more correct responses (or the less intuitive responses) participants had, the more difficult they found the tasks to be, perhaps due to the awareness of the incorrect but appealing response that would trick many others into giving a wrong response. Interestingly, the number of nonsensical responses (those neither correct nor intuitive) was positively related both to awareness of appealing incorrect responses and to the perceived difficulty of the task. This indicates that even those participants who seemingly gave nonsensical responses to CRT tasks might have a metacognitive advantage over intuitively incorrect responders. We discuss how our results fit into contemporary dual-process theories.