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Arabs have a lower incidence of atherosclerosis than other ethnicities, but few studies have examined homocysteine (HCYS) as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in this population. Here, we investigated the association between serum HYCS levels and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (smoking, hypertension, and family history of diabetes) in Saudi males. A total of 50 smokers and 72 nonsmokers completed a general health questionnaire. In addition, their lipid profiles were measured using routine methods and HCYS levels by high-performance liquid chromatograph with electrochemical detection. Regression analysis showed negative associations between HCYS and glucose (r = −0.22; P < 0.05) as well as family history of diabetes (r = −0.21; P < 0.05). HCYS levels were similar between hypertensive and nonhypertensive smokers, but they were significantly elevated in hypertensive nonsmokers (P = 0.027) and lower in smokers with family history of diabetes (P = 0.01). Levels of HCYS among nonsmokers inversely correlated with history of diabetes and elevated glucose. Nonsmokers’ HCYS levels were significantly elevated in the presence of hypertension and correlated with diastolic blood pressure. Thus, HCYS may be a predictor of hypertension among nonsmokers. Until further trials are conducted, we recommend vitamin B6/folic acid supplementation for the Saudi hypertensive population as an adjuvant therapy.
Content available remote Hypovitaminosis D and cardiometabolic risk factors among non-obese youth
Hypovitaminosis D and increased cardiometabolic risk have been well established in adults. This study aims to determine whether or not vitamin D also influences cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. To test this hypothesis, we recruited 186 boys (mean age 12.4 ± 3.7 years) and 114 girls (11.6 ± 3.7) in a cross-sectional observational study. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting blood samples were collected. Serum glucose and lipid profile were determined using routine methods. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In our population, approximately 10% of subjects had severe 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (< 12.5 nmol/L), while 50% of the boys and 40% of the girls had mild vitamin D deficiency (12.5–24.9 nmol/L). Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were inversely correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, waist and hip circumferences and serum triglyceride concentrations, and positively associated with HDL-cholesterol. Age and systolic blood pressure were significant predictors of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, explaining about 30% of the variance (p = 0.0005). In conclusion, significant associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiometabolic parameters support promising cardioprotective benefits from vitamin D sufficiency at an early age. Follow-up with prospective clinical intervention studies are needed to validate this hypothesis.
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