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1
Content available remote Mariánský kult v době a v díle arcibiskupa Arnošta z Pardubic
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Studia theologica
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2009
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tom 11
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nr 1
13-24
EN
This article deals with Arnost of Pardubice (1297-1364), bishop and the first Archbishop of Prague since 1344. The author summarizes some important aspects of the life and work of this famous figure of Czech history. In the person of Archbishop Arnost we can see a great builder, an open-handed sponsor of art and a very educated organizer of the life in his diocese. However, he was not only the Archbishop of Prague and counselor of Charles IV. But in him we find also a man of deep prayer and respect for the Mother of God. His worship and his sense for holiness can be an inspiration as much for us as it was for the people living more than 600 years ago.
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Content available remote STREDOVEKÁ KERAMIKA NA SEVEROZÁPADNOM SLOVENSKU
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EN
The article deals with the closed settlement finds from rural areas from Turčianska kotlina and Žilinská kotlina basins and from upper Váh basin (the current districts of Považská Bystrica and Púchov), which date to the Early and High Middle Ages (8th-14th centuries). Our aim was to create a typology of ceramic material from collected objects and try to determine the chronological development of pottery in a given area. The essential issues included: relative chronology of pottery development in a given area, continuity or discontinuity of pottery development in a given area, relation of pottery production to neighbouring areas (south-western Slovakia, Silesia, Moravia, and possibly Lesser Poland) in the Early and High Middle Ages. Chronologically clear material from the processed area is insufficient and does not cover the whole period of the Early to High Middle Ages. Therefore, the continuity of pottery development can be neither confirmed nor disproved.
EN
Although research on medieval history often appropriates terms such as “transculturality” or “entanglement” to explain certain phenomena, there exists no systematic approach to transcultural entanglements from a transdisciplinary perspective. While the first stage of the project is an etymological investigation and a conceptual history of this multi-faceted term within the context of historical semantics, the second one develops models to describe the various forms of transcultural entanglements. This article is intended as a workshop report on the transdisciplinary DFG-Network “Transkulturelle Verflechtungen in Euromediterraneum (500-1500)” from the perspective of medieval German literature.
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The article by the discoverers (2002) and publishers (2006) of the first Polish ducal bull is devoted to summing up the reflections on Polish metal seals. The main topics discussed are related to their chronology and functions. During the years 2002-2009 as many as five such seals were discovered. The authors are convinced all Polish ducal bulls should be dated to the times of Boleslaw III Wrymouth (after 1121). The presented typology of Polish ducal bulls was based on the varieties in the inscriptions and imagery, namely a standing figure of the ruler and two different depictions of St. Adalbert. Two types of seals were detected and their iconographic programmes were found to be connected with bracteates of Boleslaw Wrymouth. Attention is also paid to the find of a clay clump with several impressions of a gemma from the ducal palatium on Ostrów Tumski in Poznan. It is proved that the find was a clay seal, securing a chest or door. Clay seals were in use at Polish ducal court in the 11th/12th centuries alongside wax seals and bulls. This indicates not only a much more advanced development of seal signs than believed so far, but also existence of a certain system of them, and therefore also a hierarchy. The authors postulate that besides searching for the functions of bulls other than authentication of documents, it should also be considered whether their high number is not a remnant of an unsuccesful (because too early and discarded by successors) attempt at regulating internal relations and organisation of the state on the basis of document issued by the duke.
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Content available remote NEDEŠTRUKTÍVNY PRIESKUM ZANIKNUTÉHO KOSTOLA V PRÁZNOVCIACH
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EN
The non-destructive exploration (GPR measuring, geodetic surveying) of the perished medieval church in Práznovce identified a ground plan of the All Saints´ Church consisting of a smaller aisle with a rectangular ground plan, a sanctuary and a prebuilt tower. The coins found through a metal detector indicate that the little church had perished already before the mid-16th century.
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Located in North-Eastern Hungary, the site occupied during several periods a medieval castle and a multi-period prehistoric settlement with a tell-like layer sequence of several meters. Similar stratified hilltop settlements, sometimes protected with some type of defences, have hitherto usually been assigned to the Baden culture. However, most of these sites are known exclusively from old excavations or finds collected during field surveys. The investigation of the Baglyas-kő site was undertaken with the goal of clarifying the spatial occupation strategies employed by different cultures during successive periods in a location that was eminently suited to constructing strongholds and of determining the periods during which the site was occupied, alongside the identification of possible correlations between the finds and various archaeological features. As it turned out, the site was not solely occupied during the Baden period in prehistory.
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Roads have been the distinctive orientation lines of the landscape which they have crossed. Important roads have made a substantial contribution to the region. In the article the author focuses his attention on the reconstruction of the road network on the basis of archaeological and literary sources in the territory of the Žitava region during the Middle Age. The Žitava region was sparsely inhabited in the 6th-8th centuries. Pathways of this period should be mainly assumed in the Lower Žitava region. The number of archaeological sites grew in the 9th-10th centuries. In this period the developed road network also existed in the Upper Žitava region. The 11th century literary sources give evidence on main roads which run alongside the River Žitava. Important road nodes were Dvory nad Žitavou, Vráble, and Zlaté Moravce. Jelenec (Gýmeš) and Hrušov Castles played a significant role in the road network as well. The literary sources prove that there was the connection between the studied territory and the Nitra and Hron regions. The well-known Czech road runs through the Lower Žitava region. The primary literary sources, which are mainly dated to the 14th and15th centuries, provide evidence on the dense network of toll stations in the Žitava region during the Late Middle Ages.
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The article deals with a monogram of Henry Kietlicz, archbishop of Gniezno (1199-1219). It is known only from the rota on a document of Henry the Bearded of 1208. In literature the monogram was rendered as hEnRIC(US) but the present article shows a possibbility of a different reading, namely PETRC(US). The monogram PETRC(US) may have been inspired by the monogram PETRUS, known from the iconography of St. Peter. This PETRC(US) monogram and other symbols used by the archibishop may indicate that Henry Kietlicz was forming his own image imitating that of the pope (imitatio papae).
Mesto a dejiny
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2016
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tom 5
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nr 1
6 – 27
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Besides its main tasks – judiciary and executive, the town administration fulfilled a variety of functions ranging from economic production through defence and protection of its citizens, to the development of culture and education. This required oversight and stewardship by municipal dignitaries and extensive system of urban employees. The paper deals with the management of urban employees and town dignitaries responsible for major sectors of town economy, security, health care, culture and other areas of urban living. The author analyses the position of urban employees and contracts made by town. The management of urban facilities belonged to the main duties of the elected members of the municipal court. Economic facilities (mills, granary), supervision of wine trade, linen weaving or patronage of hospitals represented the main areas of their functions. An important place among municipal employees belonged to servants in judiciary, diplomacy and urban defence. The specific field, financed by the town council, represented the area of art and culture, where painters, masons, organists and trumpeters were employed.
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Content available remote IRON CONCRETIONS IN THE SENEC-SVÄTÝ MARTIN 11TH –12TH CENTURY SETTLEMENT
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EN
Ten pieces of iron concretions were found in two features from the 11th –12th century. Their limited number gives a cause for doubts that this raw material could be technologically processed for the raw iron. No equipment or other pieces of evidence of metallurgical activity was found in this settlement. For this reason is such production of iron in rural settlement little probable. More real could be the consideration that the iron concretions, which were found, were picked in order to produce red pigment which was used for staining. The results of mineralogical study of the Fe3+-rich concretions by optical and back-scattered electron image microscopy (BSE ), electron microprobe (EMPA) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD ) indicates a presence of hydrated and silicified goethite, Fe3+O(OH ), as the main component of the concretions. The iron content of the concretions attains 72 to 80 wt. % Fe2O3 and 3.5 to 5.2 wt. % SiO2. Textural and geochemical data support the natural origin of the iron concretions, probably by sedimentary precipitation of goethite from Fe-bearing solutions in wet swamp or lacustrine environment.
EN
The article is based on the analysis of sources related to the cases of suicide in early modern Wroclaw, before the period of violent changes connected with industrialization. The main aim of the project was reconstructing the process of treating suicides in that city and comparing Wroclaw to other large European cities of those times. The material status of the deceased was also included in the analysis, as were his/her origins and the time of death. The author also tried to determine the evolution of the way of dealing with the corpses of suicides during the analysed period, as well as what were the causes of changes in this respect, where they came from and what exactly they represented. The number of cases collected also allowed to prepare basic (but also preliminary) statistical data concerning the Wroclaw suicides. The purpose was to establish the relationship between the type of death chosen and sex. Similar analyses were quite rarely attempted for the area of Europe. In Poland the problem of suicidal death only ap­peared on the margins of other types of research. The results of the project partly overlap with the conclusions of authors from other countries (mainly Germany).
EN
The article is mostly based on the 19th c. source material. The main aim was to establish whether the present arrangement of reliefs is the same as in the 19th c., i.e. before the renovation of the church at the beginning of the 20th c. Of special importance were the 19th c. photographs of the church, discovered during the research and unknown to earlier authors writing on the topic. They allowed, with the help of written sources (texts by J. U. Niemcewicz, T. Wolanski, W. Kielisinski and publications in 'Przyjaciel Ludu'), to indicate the changes in the arrangement of reliefs and therefore undermine the hypotheses dealing with the extensive, global symbolic interpretation of those designs. At the same time, they supported the critical opinion about the intervention in the structure of the church of May 2011, when two reliefs were inserted into its northern wall. The 19th c. sources also show Tytus Dzialynski in a new light. Contrary to prevalent opinion, he was the person who saved two of the Inowroclaw reliefs, taking them to his private collection in Kornik.
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Content available remote Kdo je mladý/střední/starý?
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The aim of this study is to find out which characteristics affect the age identity of individuals. The main question is: What determines whether the people in the Czech Republic find themselves young, middle aged or old? Two alternative hypotheses were tested: a) the age identity is mainly influenced by person’s family and working roles; b) the age identity is primarily a function of person’s chronological age and his health. While the second hypothesis understands the age identity as an ordinal variable, the first hypothesis views values of youth, middle age and old age as three different nominal constructs. The question is answered by analysis of quantitative data from European Social Survey Round 4. The sample contains 1864 respondents aged 20-95. Author uses binary logistic regression to find models for adopting age identities in different age categories. The second hypothesis of age identity being primarily an effect of age and health is proved. The influence of some family and working roles on age identity are, however, also discussed.
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Content available remote STREDOVEKÉ DEDINSKÉ SÍDLISKO V BITAROVEJ
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EN
The study presents results from the rescue archaeological excavation in Bitarová in the year 2010. Excavation was induced by the construction of highway D1 Hričovské Podhradie-Dubná Skala. At the location Lány in Bitarová altogether 39 settlement objects, dated to the Púchov culture and Middle Age, were excavated. Torso of a defunct village settlement dated to the 12th – 13th century represents the most significant horizon and it is the main subject of this study. It is mostly the remains of economic hinterland of the village stretching along both sides of Bitarovský stream.
EN
In the second half of the 14th c. the dominating position in the partitioned and subdued by the Luxembourgs Silesia was achieved by Louis I (d. 1398), Duke of Brzeg. His independent rule, however, started only after the small town of Lubin was redeemed from the hands of obligees. In the politically uncertain situation the year 1353 was certainly a turning point for the duke. Thanks to the support from Charles IV, Louis I gave his daughter Margaret in married to the Bavarian duke Albrecht I, lord of Straubing, who was also, together with his brothers, an heir of the counties of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland, as well as the lands of the Frisians. On that occasion Louis I ordered a new courtly redaction of the Life of St. Hedwig, which was a public manifestation of his place in the Piast family, pretending to the role of one of the oldest dynasties in Christian Europe. Genealogical self-identification of duke Louis with his ancestors, St. Hedwig (d. 1243, canonized 1267) related to the Wittelsbachs, her husband Henry I the Bear­ded (d. 1238) and her son Henry II the Pious (d. 1241) was a kind of legitimization of the poor duke and was intended to be a pass to the highest aristocratic spheres of late medieval Europe.
EN
Information about ordinations of monks in the Plock diocese in the first half of the 16th century come from the „Metrica' of suffragan bishop Piotr Lubart from the years 1514-1530. It notes 278 cases of ordaining monks to lower and higher orders. In all, 195 monks from nine monastic orders received such ordinations from the hands of the bishop. The largest group of brethren that were ordained came from the mendicant orders (especially Dominicans and Observant Franciscans). It took them from a few weeks to several months to receive all kinds of higher orders. The Plock „Metrica' of ordained contains also some dozen cases when monastic superiors included provisions for ordination of members of lay clergy.
EN
After 1343 the political activities of Casimir the Great were especially aimed toward subordination of Red Ruthenia. It was also the topic of the king's meeting with the Grand Master of the Order of the Teutonic Knights Winrich von Kniprode, held in Malbork (Marienburg) in October 1365. The purpose was to ascertain at least sympathetic neutrality of the Order during the expedition to Volhynia against the Lithuanians that was planned for the following year. The state of bilateral relations fostered the cooperation (the last short misunderstanding was the conflict about Rajgrod in 1360) and the intensification of fights between the Order and Lithuania was also helpful.
EN
In Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz the author found a parchment bifolium with the annotation: Libellus ecclesie Posznaniensis (call number: Hdschr. 87, Nr. 3). On its folio 1 recto there is the Poznan annal I. It was published by Wojciech Ketrzynski in 1888 (Monumenta Poloniae Historica, vol. V) from the same manuscript, then in the library of the Seminary (Divinity School) in Poznan (later of the Archdiocesan Archives). Its later history is unknown but most probably it remained in Poznan until 1939. The rediscovered bifolium comes from the collection of Ernst Grumach (1902-1967). He was a classical philologist and literary historian of Jewish descent and during the years 1941-1945 was forced to work at the Zentralbibliothek des Reichssicherheitshauptamts in Berlin where he dealt with books and manuscripts brought there from all over Europe. That was also the fate of part of the collections of the Archdiocesan Archives in Poznan. Most probably the bifolium in question was also transported to Berlin at that time. Grumach may have taken it in April 1945 and after his death it was deposited at the Staatsbibliothek. Comparison of the 1888 edition with the manuscript shows that Ketrzynski's readings were correct (besides unimportant differences in some individual letters).
EN
The literature related to the problem of the child in the Middle Ages is quite extensive. The exception is the topic closely connected to the Dominican officium praedicationis, namely sermons to children. The author discusses two sermones ad pueros found in the thirteenth century treatise De instructione puerorum by the Dominican William of Tournai. The sermons are typical model sermons (sermones moderni), the purpose of which was to supply Dominican preachers with schemas and proposals of sermons which were said by them to the youngest pupils in the scholae attached to monasteries.
EN
History of the education is not frequented topic in the Slovak historiography. On prosopography of the medieval chapters, we can say the same words. On example of the Spiš Chapter, article shows research possibilities of the intersection of the both themes. The Chapter as a place of education is analysed in the first part of the article. Because of lacking straight mentions in original sources on it, our conclusions stay on secondary evidences. Canons as learned persons are aim of the second part of the paper. Many questions are connected with this point of view: canons as educational elite of the medieval society, possibilities of higher education (studium generale), position in chapter (dignity or office) as a determination of the further education, etc. Following research should bring thorough prosopography of the medieval Spiš Chapter. It will be the solid basis for strong analysis of the educated elites of the medieval Hungarian kingdom.
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