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The release of oxytocins (OT) through the anterior lobe of the of hypophysis in small ruminants is not indispensable for maintaining milk production. The lack of premilking stimulation in small ruminants does not influence the milk flow pattern during milking. Ewes are machine milked most frequently at high pulsation rates (from 120 to 180 cycles per min), as well as low vacuum levels in milking installation (32 to 40 kPa) and at a pulsation ratio of 50%. Optimal machine milking conditions for goats are a mean pulsation frequency of 70-90 cycles/min, at vacuum levels of 36-44 kPa and a pulsation ratio of 65%. A well shaped and healthy udder of small ruminants intended for machine milking should have a large volume, with a globose shape and clearly defined teats, soft and elastic tissues with palpable gland cisterns inside, moderate height, not surpassing the hock, marked intermammary ligament, teats of medium size (length and width), implanted nearly vertical. Overmilking brought about congestion and swelling of teats, dysfunction of muscles of teat sphincters, as well as injuries of the epithelium and teat canal outlet. Overmilking may be associated with the reduction of antibacterial substances and incomplete closure of the teat canal. Causes of teat-end injuries in small ruminants during lactation are overmilking and machine stripping, as well as the period of mother-sucking. Udder-halves with injured teats are infected to a higher degree than halves with healthy teats. Annual checking and regular maintenance of milking machines were to a large degree decisive factors for udder health and the hygienic value of milk.
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