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EN
The author points out some most important conditions and premises of so-called specific loss of a generation of young Poles. He states that basic human needs - safety and acceptance as well as development ones - are blocked at present. A group of development needs has been determined by a group of psychical needs of a human being. But at the same time safety and acceptance needs can not be realized making room for situations of different dangers, feeling of helplessness or loneliness etc. The phenomenon of blocking the needs is intensified with two mechanism of a psycho-social character i.e. a mechanism of deceived hopes and a mechanism of incapacitation of the youth (children). Also various consequences of features and pathologies (normalcy) of a different level authority become hazards. One of the educational antinomies arises from these premises. It is a pedagogy that emphasizes education without hope, education equal to manipulation, doctrine and dogmatic education as well as education deprived of subjectivity and democracy. One of the effects of such education is a set-back in development of various social forces.. Educational tasks that can lead to overcoming such a situation are not only of theoretical character. They have to be closely related to practical solutions in the sphere of economics, decision-making and activities in politics, state social and educational policy and last but not least they have to be in accordance with a type of central and local authority in being. The author in his paper describes constitutive features of education and draws some new educational strategies and their practical implications.
EN
This article explores the family as an educational environment and space for the intergenerational exchange of knowledge. Focusing on the process of cultural socialization as viewed against the currently popular “culture wars” it employs the concept of consociality, which is aimed at grasping the diversity and unpredictability of human interactions, and has been recently rejuvenated by Ulf Hannerz. Investigating the consocial character of learning and intergenerational exchange within the family educational environment, the article takes examples from Slovakia and Latvia and problematizes the relationship between formal and informal learning to demonstrate how it changes knowledge infused with cultural meanings and references. The article argues that this process depends on the consocial conditions in which it is created. It also suggests that viewing the family environment in consocial terms provides us with an opportunity to rethink the role of experiences shared within the family and thereby mitigate ethnic-cultural essentialism.
EN
This article analyses the phenomenon of self-employment and entrepreneurship among the 20-35-year-olds in the two country contexts; Poland and Ireland, and the capital cities of Warsaw and Dublin, respectively, in 2005. It seeks to compare motivations driving the choice of an autonomous style of work; role of social capital both for decisions to start up as well as for subsequent economic performance; the value of an institutional environment for entrepreneurial efforts. It examines such aspects through the prism of the economic and socio-cultural characteristics of the countries in question. By this, the article draws a broad picture of findings that may inform individual as well as macro-related characteristics of entrepreneurship.
EN
Young people play a specific role in financial institutions. Their role depends on the group, to which they fall into. The first group are young people who have not established any commercial relationship with a bank yet. They are influenced by several factors arising from internal and external environments, in which young people exist. The second group are young people who are already customers of the bank. This group has the biggest fluctuation. The aim of the research study is to analyze current issues and problems in communication of the banks with young people. The results of the survey indicate that most young people aged 15 to 24 have entered into a commercial relationship with the bank. This age group is by the selection of banks influenced by the views and experiences of parents.
EN
The exclusionary identities plaguing our contemporary times have strong linkages with the heritage and culture of communities. Heritage is a construct that not only records the past but is also created for contemporary social and political needs. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at two publicly contested heritage sites in Maharashtra, India, this paper seeks to understand, young people’s interactions with heritage and culture. These two sites are an ancient Buddhist monument combined with a Hindu temple and a museum articulating elitist narratives of Maharashtra’s past. We found that young people’s heritage conceptions are deeply rooted in inter-connected political identities of belonging to a region and a nation; and regionally popular symbols such as Shivaji and hill forts play a significant role in shaping them. Our fieldwork shows that the heritage represented by some institutions reproduces the broader social dominations and injustice. Worryingly, some of these projections are accepted by young people as their own heritage. This normalizes the partial representation of heritage. Some young people, however, contest some of those dominant projections and hold diverse ideas on heritage. These conceptions provide fertile ground for young people’s political engagement with the idea of heritage and are a call for them to participate in the current contest over India’s past. Diversity and contestations are hallmarks of heritage and culture in India. In that context, the paper enriches our understandings of those discursive and power laden processes that shape the formation of heritage and culture among youth, not only in the global South but also across the world.
EN
The article treats the selected circumstances of social policy namely the conditions and possibilities of social peace’s reaching with regard to young people’s preferences and attitudes and the factors influencing them. On the basis of empirical research carried out with respondents from various faculties of the Czech University of Life Sciences and the Czech Technical University in Prague, the author presents her conclusions: are there any threats (and which ones) to social peace and through it to economic development which could be triggered by how young people perceive the justification of social policy and its principles’ content.
EN
The paper discusses the life of children during the First World War and the problem of delinquency and criminality of young people. The article uses the memories of Miroslav Mužík and Stanislav Řada. Stanislav Řada spent the war as a delinquent child - he stole coal, food and he roamed the streets of Prague while Miroslav Mužík spent his youth and the war in the reformatory. The paper describes the causes of the rising delinquency and also the lives of young delinquents. It compares the two life experiences. The war changed everything - influenced life in the institution and also the life out of the institution.
EN
This paper draws on a research project carried out in the framework of the EC funded project 'Youth and European identity' (5th FP). The project investigated - both quantitatively and qualitatively - identity and citizenship constructions in young adults (aged 18-24) from ten European regions/cities: Manchester England and Edinburgh Scotland (UK), Madrid and Bilbao (Spain), Vienna and Vorarlberg (Austria), Chemnitz and Bielefeld (former 'East' and 'West' Germany) and Bratislava (Slovakia) and Prague (Czech Republic). Using the Schwartz value questionnaire data, in this paper we explore the relationships between the values of European, national and regional identities and second order value types that, according to S. H. Schwartz theory (Schwartz 1992), create the basic set of human values (self-transcendence, openness to change, self-enhancement, conservation). We also compare these relationships in Bratislava and other studied regions. Through semi-structured interviews we also investigate the reflection of these values in hopes and fears concerning the EU membership in 'new' and 'old' EU member states, focusing mainly on national identity issues. As expected, the position of regional, national and European identities within the second order values structure is related to the situation of the country regarding the national identity formation and regarding the transformations linked to the EU integration processes. The results are discussed in the context of an ongoing research project investigating regional identities of young people in nine Slovak regions.
EN
Entrepreneurial capacity of the economy is determined by the abilities and motivation of individuals to start business activity, as well as by positive social perceptions of the business. People are not born as entrepreneurs, but thanks to the social climate and a favourable business environment they are becoming ones. They live in the economics that is a part of the external environment; hence the living environment, which affects their behaviour. The means of implementation of economic behaviour are essential, thus questions of decision-making, selection process and the relationship between what people say and how they actually behave, as well as the purpose their behaviour leads to. The present society puts great emphasis on knowledge and ability to utilize its potential in practise. The issue of entrepreneurship training, supporting the spirit of enterprise, business potential, the related financial education and raising financial literacy are nowadays frequently discussed topics in our society. They are object of attention to the European institutions, governments, ministries and the other institutions, as well as to providers of formal and informal education. Entrepreneurship education and financial literacy support are all-European and global trends that are also enforced in the Slovak Republic. The aim of all support activities is to teach young people, as early as in the process of learning, the ability to see business opportunities, to make use of them after graduation and to apply them in a business, to show them how to manage the risks and to help them to dispose of the necessary financial knowledge and skills. Contemporary theoretical approaches regard entrepreneurship and financial literacy of young people in wider context as important assumptions of individual success, personal initiative and autonomy of individuals, taking in consideration the indisputable role of business environment.
EN
The process of gender identity development in children and youth affects their daily life. With their very existence, transgender children confront the common notions of the majority about “right” boys and girls. There is a persistent pressure in different areas of social life and at schools they visit on preserving the cis-normative way of life. The study is based on a year-long research of transgender children and youth at elementary and secondary schools in Slovakia, with the support of the civic association TransFúzia. The research material consists of in-depth interviews with ten children and young people and interviews with the representatives and teachers from three selected secondary schools. The research results suggest that the self-realisation of children in a school environment is influenced by various limits and barriers. These, however, arise not only from the official systemic framework for teaching and the education process in Slovakia, but also from individual notions and approaches by school authorities. The personal stories of seeking their own “self” of transgender children and youth therefore develop in different contexts and under different conditions. They present not only the specific situation of the members of this special minority, but create the image of the daily life of children and youth in a school environment.
EN
This paper aims at identifying factors behind the-making-of cultural heritage reproduced within educational settings by trying to answer the following question: How do young people link narratives of the past with their own cultural identities and perspectives on the future? Observations made at conferences by two different non-formal educational organisations in the same region in Germany form the data for this analysis. Both conferences were structurally similar but very different in their perspectives on Germany’s role in global history and on young people’s responsibilities to create a future worth living in. Since both organisations are concerned with political education and target a similar group of young people from similar economic and educational backgrounds, these differences seem especially significant for thinking about discursive practices in educational settings. Building on the understanding that heritage is a discursive practice in a field of power relations, the paper provides insights into the links between certain images of the past, which are recreated in very specific ways in different educational settings, and the cultural practices young people produce within their local contexts.
EN
The article analyzes the effect of emancipation of children and youths on the structure of the family and on putting into effect the idea of Christian family education. It characterizes the mentioned phenomena and assesses them in the context of their usefulness in realization of the ideal of Christian education.
13
Content available remote Class, Cultural Capital, and the Mobile Phone
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EN
This article uses data from a representative survey on the applications of information and communication technologies to investigate the use of the mobile phone as a cultural object by different groups of respondents/consumers. Setting out from the premise that the symbolic and artefactual nature of new media, their ‘thingness’, should be a central part of any investigation of their social and cultural signifi cance, the article focuses on the meaning of the mobile phone as a cultural object and commodity sign for various groups of users/consumers. It also concentrates on the social structuring of mobile phone use by young people and addresses the relationship between class and the practices and meanings of mobile phone use in the context of young people’s consumption of other media and cultural technologies. It addresses one of the central questions in the sociology of culture—how are consumption tastes and practices related to class—and examines it through the case of mobile phone use. The study suggests that the general ‘technosensibility’ of young people, which seems a universal generational phenomenon, when interpreted in the context of the consumption of other ‘old’ and ‘new’ media and cultural consumption in general, is differentiated according to class and cultural capital. The article concludes that class distinctions produce a digital divide that results in two distinct populations of young users: the interacting and the interacted users.
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