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EN
In the presented hybridization programme of barley cultivars and rye inbred lines including 48 cross combinations the seed set ranged from 3.13 to 92.98%, while embryos were formed in 0.74 to 36.36% in successful pollinations. Sixty five plants were generated by embryo callus culture and one - by embryo culture without callus formation. The hybrids had somatic chromosome numbers 2n=14 (60 plants) and 2n=28 (6 plants). Plants obtained via embryo callus culture showed good vegetative vigour and well-developed root system. Spike morphology of all plants resembled that of rye. Meiosis in 17 diploids showed 0.13-0.63 barley-barley and rye-rye bivalents with a chiasma frequency of 0.14-0.69 per cell. The heteromorphic bivalent-like configurations occurred in five plants in 0.01-0.02 per cell. The amphidiploids had 7.79-10.71 barley-barley and rye-rye bivalents with a chiasma frequency of 9.36-17.75 per cell. All plants, with 14 and 28 chromosomes, were completely sterile both in backcrosses and when selfed.
EN
The effect of germination on the rate of formation of some endo- and exohydrolases, important in baking, in rye kernels was examined. Germination of the rye gave increase in a-amylase, endo-b-xylanase, endo-b-glucanase, b-xylosidase, a-arabinosidase, b-glucosidase as well as endo- and exopeptidases activities. The most intensive changes of activities in the group of examined enzymes were observed for a-amylase. b-amylase activity did not significantly increase on germination. The increase of endohydrolases activities in germinating rye kernels was much more markedly compared with activities of exohydrolases.
EN
The paper presents the results of research on the influence of the air stream produced by produced by the drone on the transverse distribution pattern of the rye seeds. The seeds were spread by a small electric seeder with capacity of 2.7 dm3 with a spreading disc. The distribution of seeds on a groove patternator was analyzed. The height of the sowing disc position above the patternator surface was 0.5 and 1.0 meter. The influence of the air stream from the drone rotors on the change of transverse distribution pattern of the seeds falling into the table grooves was confirmed.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu strumienia powietrza wytwarzanego przez drona na rozkład poprzeczny wagi nasion żyta osiadających pod dronem. Nasiona wysiewane były za pomocą małego elektrycznego siewnika z tarczą rozsiewającą o pojemności zbiornika 2,7 dm3 . Analizowano rozkład nasion na stole rowkowym. Wysokość umieszczenia tarczy siewnika nad powierzchnią stołu wynosiła 0,5 i 1,0 m. Stwierdzono wpływ strumienia powietrza pochodzącego od wirników drona na zmianę rozkładu masy nasion opadłej w rowki stołu.
EN
The aim of this study was to identify the genetic changes in rye seeds induced by natural aging during long-term storage and successive regeneration cycles under gene bank conditions. Genomic DNA from four rye samples (cv. Dańkowskie Złote), varying in their initial viability and having gone through one or three reproduction cycles, were analysed using specific PCR targeting of a secalin locus, and various repetitive fragments defined by the R173 sequence. A statistical analysis of the band frequencies for both secalin and R173.3 primer pairs revealed no changes in their frequencies. Similar data on R173.1 demonstrated significant changes between samples of different initial viability showing a lack of a band of the expected length (987 bp) in progeny originating from low viability seeds lots. These changes were inherited even after three regeneration cycles. Our results may indicate that long-term storage that leads to loss of viability also generates heritable changes in the preserved germplasm. However, it remains to be discovered where these changes occur and whether they are connected with coding or with non-coding DNA regions.
EN
Four F2 mapping populations derived from crosses between rye inbred lines DS2×RXL10, 541×Ot1-3, S120×S76 and 544×Ot0-20 were used to develop a consensus map of chromosome 6R. Thirteen marker loci that were polymorphic in more than one mapping population constituted the basis for the alignment of the four maps using the JoinMap v. 3.0 software package. The consensus map consists of 104 molecular marker loci including RFLPs, RAPDs, AFLPs, SSRs, ISSRs, SCARs, STSs and isozymes. The average distance between the marker loci is 1.3 cM, and the total map length is 135.5 cM. This consensus map may be used as a source of molecular markers for the rapid development of new maps of chromosome 6R in any mapping population.
18
Content available remote Wpływ cech ziarna żyta na proces rozdrabniania
75%
PL
Celem pracy było określenie wpływu wybranych właściwości fizycznych ziarna żyta, na wskaźniki ilościowe i energochłonność procesu rozdrabniania. Wykazano dodatnią i istotną statystycznie korelację (α = 0,05) między gęstością usypową ziarna a wyciągiem mąki (r = 0,72) oraz korelację ujemną między gęstością usypową a średnim wymiarem cząstek mlewa (r = - 0,70). Zmiany wyciągu mąki w zależności od określonych właściwości fizycznych ziarna opisano równaniem regresji liniowej wielokrotnej (R2 = 0,987). Nakłady energii na rozdrabnianie ziarna żyta zawierały się w zakresie od 24 do 32 kJ*kg-1. Zmiany energochłonności jednostkowej rozdrabniania opisano równaniem regresji liniowej wielokrotnej w zależności od określonych właściwości fizycznych ziarna (R2 = 0,795).
EN
It was the object of his work to determine an influence of selected physical features of rye-grains on quantity coefficients and energy consumption in the process of grinding. The positive and essential statistic correlation (α = 0.05) between the bulk density of grains and the flour extract (r = 0.72) and the negative correlation between the bulk density and the average dimension of grain particles (r = - 0.70) were shown. Changes in flour extract as affected by specified physical properties of grains were expressed by the linear multiple regression equation (R2 = 0.987). The energy consumption for rye-grain grinding reached the range from 24 to 32 kJ*kg-1. Changes in the specific energy consumption in the process of grinding were expressed by the linear multiple regression equation as affected by specific physical properties of grains (R2 = 0.795).
EN
The influence of cadmium and lead on the growth of seedling of the S25 generations of inbred lines of rye was tested. The germinated rye seedlings were treated with cadmium at the following concentrations: (10-4 and 10-6M) and lead at concentrations of (10-3, 10-4 and 101 M) for 24 and 48 hours. The harmful influence of cadmium manifested itself through the stunting of root growth at the lowest concentration applied for 24 hours and 48 hours, with the exception of line CH7/99. In some lines cadmium caused the reduction of shoot length and the lessening of root number. However, lead reduced the growth of roots at concentrations of 10-4 M. Shoots were more sensitive to the activity of lead, which caused the reduction of their length at concentrations of 10-4 M in all lines. The researched inbred lines reacted to cadmium and lead in various ways.
PL
Badano wpływ kadmu i ołowiu na wzrost siewek jedenastu linii wsobnych żyta pokolenia S25. Podkiełkowane siewki żyta traktowano kadmem (w stężeniach 10[do-4] i 10[do -6] M) oraz ołowiem (w stężeniach 10[do -3], 10[do -4] i 10[do -6] M) przez 24 oraz 48 godzin, a następnie wykładano na pożywkę Hoaglanda. Szkodliwe działanie kadmu uwidoczniło się zahamowaniem wzrostu korzeni linii już w najmniejszym stężeniu 10[do -6]M traktowanych przez 24 i 48 godzin, z wyjątkiem linii CH7/99, a u niektórych linii - obniżeniem długości części nadziemnych oraz zmniejszeniem liczby korzeni. Ołów hamował wzrost korzeni dopiero w stężeniu - 10-3 M. Wrażliwsze na działanie ołowiu były części nadziemne, co uwidoczniło się redukcją długości kiełków w stężeniu 10-4 M u wszystkich linii. Badane linie wsobne żyta zróżnicowanie reagowały na kadm i ołów.
EN
This review article is based on scientific and popular science publications as well as articles from branch magazines that refer to the production of alcohol in Poland based on traditional grain raw materials. New trends in the production of broadly understood alcoholic beverages point to a return to traditional raw materials and production methods, preferably carried out in small, traditional distillery – crafted beers, local wines or spirits. Consumers desire a return to tradition, however, it is equally important to maintain the right quality and efficiency of production. The future of alcoholic beverages based on malted and unmalted cereals in Poland is associated with the search for specific varieties of cereals, their mixtures as well as fermentation and distillation processes that will allow the production of ‘craft spirits’.
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