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Content available remote Perception of doping-related risks by junior and senior athletes
Study aim: To assess the degree of acceptance of risk by experienced and inexperienced athletes. Material and methods: Two male teams participated in the study: juniors (football; n = 9) aged 16 - 18 years and seniors (volleyball; n = 13) aged 20 - 32 years. The subjects were requested to assess the doping-related risk of losing every of 6 values: health, medals, ranking position, physical attractiveness, psycho-emotional balance, bonuses and respect of personages, in three modes: importance of losing given value (scale 1 - 6), general likelihood of a doping-related loss of given value (scale 0 - 100) and the doping-related risk of losing given value the subject would be ready to take (scale 0 - 100).Results: Seniors and juniors rated the importance of individual values and the doping-related general likelihood of losing them alike. As compared with senior athletes, the junior ones significantly underrated the risk of losing health and respect and overrated that of possible bonus.Conclusions: The emotional, cognitive and social maturation of young athletes throughout a decade have an impact on perceiving doping-related risks and the associated decisions.
The effects of doping with CeO2 and calcination temperature on the physicochemical properties of the NiO/Al2O3 system have been investigated using DTA, XRD, nitrogen adsorption measurements at −196°C and decomposition of H2O2 at 30–50°C. The pure and variously doped solids were subjected to heat treatment at 300, 400, 700, 900 and 1000°C. The results revealed that the specific surface areas increased with increasing calcination temperature from 300 to 400°C and with doping of the system with CeO2. The pure and variously doped solids calcined at 300 and 400°C consisted of poorly crystalline NiO dispersed on γ-Al2O3. Heating at 700°C resulted in formation of well crystalline NiO and γ-Al2O3 phases beside CeO2 for the doped solids. Crystalline NiAl2O4 phase was formed starting from 900°C. The degree of crystallinity of NiAl2O4 increased with increasing the calcination temperature from 900 to 1000°C. An opposite effect was observed upon doping with CeO2. The NiO/Al2O3 system calcined at 300 and 400°C has catalytic activity higher than individual NiO obtained at the same calcination temperatures. The catalytic activity of NiO/Al2O3 system increased, progressively, with increasing the amount of CeO2 dopant and decreased with increasing the calcination temperature.
The article rejects a discussion study that criticises argumentation concernng the theme of doping. A comparison of the published polemic and the original monograph, which was its target, reveals the following inadequacies in Vratislav Moudr’s approach: 1. he does not discern in a satisfactory way the distinctive ideas in the two texts and he draws conclusions from premises which he unnecessarily introduces into the texts, where the criticised ideas are not to be found; 2. he confuses legality with philosophical arguments when he turns from ethical inquiry to the official registration of selected substances; 3. he does not maintain sufficient distance between empirical reality and the approach of ideas to that reality, something that leads him to an inadequate stipulation of “one correct approach”; 4. he does not observe the canons of logic when distinguishing arguments and counter-arguments, and after a recapitulation of his critical opinion, he offers the very conclusions which are actually explicitly contained in the criticized text. On the basis of a large number of references to the published critique, I argue that Vratislav Moudr has not undertaken work of quality and integrity, and it is necessary to supplement his discussion study with an alternative understanding of the theme under discussion.
Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird die Diskussionsstudie mit der Kritik an der Argumentation zum Thema Doping kritisch hinterfragt. Anhand des Vergleichs der publizierten Polemik und der ihr zu Grunde liegenden Monographie ergeben sich folgende inadäquate Ansätze und Vorgehensweisen Vratislav Moudrs: 1. Moudr unterscheidet die ideelle Schnittstelle zwischen zwei Texten nicht ausreichend und zieht seine Schlussfolgerungen aus Prämissen, die er Texten zuordnet, in denen die kritisierten Aussagen nicht vorhanden sind; 2. die philosophische Argumentation verwechselt er mit der Legalität, indem er die ethische Fragestellung durch eine Aufzählung ausgewählter Stoffe ersetzt; 3. er wahrt keinen ausreichenden Abstand zwischen empirischer Realität und diesbezüglichem Denkansatz, woraus sich die inadäquate Festlegung einer „einzig richtigen Problemlösung“ ergibt; 4. er verfolgt keine feste logische Struktur von Argument und Gegenargument und gelangt nach der Rekapitulation der kritischen Ansichten zu Schlussfolgerungen, die freilich ausdrücklich in dem von ihm kritisierten Text aufgeführt sind. Auf Grundlage der gesammelten Verweise auf die publizierte Kritik bin ich der Meinung, dass Vratislav Moudr hier keine saubere Arbeit geleistet hat, und dass die Diskussionsstudie durch ein alternatives Verständnis des zur Diskussion stehenden Themas ergänzt werden muss.
Content available remote Gas-phase synthesis of inorganic fullerene-like structures and inorganic nanotubes
Open Chemistry
tom 6
nr 3
Following the discovery of fullerenes (C60) and carbon nanotubes, it was shown that nanoparticles of inorganic layered compounds, like WS2 and MoS2, are unstable in the planar form and they form closed cage structures with polyhedral or nanotubular shapes. Although initially the method of synthesis for the formation of such closed caged structures and nanotubes involved starting from the respective oxides, it is now well established that the gas-phase synthetic route (using metal chlorides, carbonyls etc) provides an alternative which is suitable for the synthesis of very many closed caged structures and nanotubes hitherto unknown. Various issues with this method of synthesis, including its fundamentals, mechanism, and the properties of the inorganic fullerene-like structures produced are reviewed, together with some possible applications. [...]
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