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This article reviews the literature concerning the most important aspects connected with origin, development, severity and control of crown gall, the neoplastic disease of many plant species. The disease creates a significant economic problem, particularly in nursery production of fruit trees and roses. Besides general information on the disease and its causal agent, the course of pathogenesis was described. The infection of plants is of an unique character and consists of transfer of the part of bacterial Ti plasmid into attacked plant cell and its incorporation with genome. This leads to the formation of tumorous tissue. Signalisation and communication system on a molecular level between pathogen and plant was pointed out. The crown gall occuring on roots restricts transport of water and nutrients into above-ground-parts of plant, reduces plant growth and sometimes causes its dead. From among many means of diseaese control described the biological method seems to be most promising, especially for stone fruits and roses. In some countries, including Poland, the commercial preparations based on K84 strain of A. radiobacter were developed.
Bacteria are one of the most important components of plant environment. Most of bacteria colonizing rhizosphere, rhizoplane and phylloplane are the commensals. Among mutualistic bacteria the microsymbionts of leguminous plant and other bacteria promoting plant growth and development are distinguished. Their activity leads to an increase in bioavailability of nutrients, production of substances improving plant growth (e.g. phytohormones) and/or control of pathogens and other deleterious organisms. Strains representing various genera are utilized as active compounds in biopreparations against diseases, pests and weeds. Their commercial application is very perspective especially in greenhouses and storages. The development of technology production of biopreparations consists of several stages including selection of effective strain performed in laboratory and field conditions, mass cultivation and formulation of final product.
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