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The paper deals with Thomas Aquinas’s (1225–1274) theory of predication. Aquinas’s numerous works contain passages devoted to the issue of how predication works, usually in various theological or philosophical contexts. Assuming Aquinas’s account of predication was sufficiently uniform in relation to essential and accidental predications, there are several distinct interpretative models of predication possible in relation to the texts. They differ in ascribing different semantic roles to the copula. The first model sees the copula as expressing inherence of a form expressed by the predicate term in the entity denoted by the subject term. The second model interprets the copula as designating identity. The third model incorporates inherence with the fact that Aquinas combines predicative and existential functions of the copula. I argue that the identity model is closest to what Aquinas has in mind when speaking about predication as opposed to extensional truth conditions.
Der Artikel stellt die logische Modalitätenlehre von Juan Caramuel von Lobkowitz vor. Zu den Standartmodalbegriffen Notwendigkeit, Möglichkeit, Unmöglichkeit und Kontingenz fügt Caramuel noch den Modus Freiheit hinzu. Die Kontingenz fasst er in einer Polemik mit einigen Zeitgenossen als „möglich, vielleicht aber auch nicht“ auf. Der Autor des Artikels untersucht außerdem die Frage nach der Berechtigung, den Modus der Freiheit zu den logischen Grundmodalitäten zu zählen, und gelangt hierbei zu einer negativen Antwort. Caramuels Auff assung der Modalitäten ist auch dadurch interessant, dass er außer den logischen Modalitäten auch einige Beziehungen zwischen ausgewählten epistemischen und deontologischen Modalitäten untersucht.
The paper explores the status of the proposition "God exists" in late scholastic debates of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in some key authors of the era. A proposition is said to be self-evident if its truth is known solely from the meaning of the terms and is not inferred from other propositions. It does not appear to be immediately evident from the terms that God exists, for the concept expressed by "God" is based on the relation to creatures and negation of imperfection and does not reach to the divine essence. Thomas Aquinas maintains that there are two types of self-evident propositions: those self-evident in themselves (secundum se) but not to us (non quoad nos) and those self-evident in themselves as well as to us. "God exists" is of the first type. For Scotus a self-evident proposition is such that if its terms are conceived by any intellect, the truth of the proposition becomes known from the terms, non-inferentially. In his view there is no distinction between a self-evident proposition in itself and that in relation to us, because any proposition self-evident in itself is known to be such to any intellect, even though it might not be actually known; it would be known, provided that the terms are conceived. So for Scotus the sentence "God exists" expresses different propositions for the blessed in heaven, the angels and God on the one hand and humans on the other. The former is self-evident, the latter is not. While later scholastics accept either the solution of Thomas or that of Scotus, according to which "God exists" is not self-evident for humans, Thomas de Argentina (also known as Thomas of Strasbourg, 1275-1357) differs in that for him "God exists" is self-evident for humans too. The position of Thomas Aquinas was defended by Domingo Bañez (1528–1604), Francisco Zumel (1540–1607) and Gregorio de Valentia (1549–1603). In contrast, Johannes Poncius (John Punch or Ponce, 1603–1661, also 1599–1672) was a famous adherent of Scotus. There is a fair number of scholastics harmonizing the doctrine of Thomas and Scotus: Bernard Sannig (1638–1704), Luis de Molina (1536–1600), Gabriel Vázquez (c. 1549–1604), Rodrigo de Arriaga (1592–1667) and Jean Lalemandet (1595–1647). According to these authors, when Thomas says that "God exists" is self-evident in itself, he speaks about the extensional proposition, i.e. the state of affairs being conceptualized, which does not contradict Scotus's teaching.
This study analyses geographical representativeness of governments in the Czech Republic and in the Slovak Republic. It claims that both countries differ in the position of the capital, as within the Czech Republic its dominant position is declining, while in Slovak republic it retains this position. This dominance is also underlined by the centralization of other districts around Bratislava. On the other hand a larger number of regions are more ideally represented or overrepresented in the Czech Republic than in the Slovak Republic. It can therefore be stated that the two countries differ in terms of geographical representativeness of individual governments.
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