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EN
The aim of the research was to study somatic markers during decision-making in children aged 6-14 years. On the basis of the success in Piaget’s experiments, 27 children were divided into three groups – preoperational stage, concrete operational stage and formal operational stage. Children played a modified Iowa Gambling Task while skin conductance and heart rate were measured. The somatic markers appeared during decision-making in children from the age of approximately 10 years, the period of concrete operational stage.
EN
The paper focuses on the relation between the dimension of the cognitive style “analytical-intuitive”, assessed with the Cognitive Style Index (CSI) instrument, and decision-making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Our study is built on the hypothesis of somatic markers and on the study of the role of emotions in the process of decision-making in the experimental game (Iowa Gambling Task). Our research studied the relationship of cognitive style and performance (and the dynamics of change) in the experimental task on a sample of 108 participants. They were administered the electronic form of IGT and the CSI questionnaire measuring the preference for cognitive style “analytical versus intuitive”. No significant difference was found in the total IGT score between intuitive and analytical participants. However, a significant difference in the character of choice selection of both groups was found. The intuitive participants chose more “safer” decks that bring less variability in potential losses. In conclusions, we have questioned the concept of “beneficial” and “unfavourable” decks. In the test version used in our research, we replaced these names with the concept of “safe” and “risky” decks. The reason is that the choice of the so-called “beneficial” decks is not the best strategy in terms of total wins. Research results suggest the effect of intuition on decision-making in terms of avoiding risky choices.
EN
The aim of the study was to find: 1) the relationship between the basic components of the basal mental personality integration (cognitive, emotional, regulatory and adjusting variability), factors of general personality variability (general mental arousal, motoric dynamics) and styles of coping with decisional conflict in decision-making (vigilant, hyper-vigilant behaviour, buck-passing and procrastination) in paramedics, 2) stability, or variability of occurrence of identified relationships among paramedics with the different length of experience. Sample: 134 paramedics, age: 22 – 51 years, AM = 33.22, SD = 6.26. Methods: Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire, MDMQ (Mann et al., 1997), Questionnaire SPARO (Mikšík, 2004). Results: Significant relationships between components and factors of mental integration (emotional and regulatory invariability, lower mental arousal) were found. Their integration forms a “calm, mentally stable and resilient personality type” and the choice of hyper-vigilance and defensive, avoidance strategies: procrastination and buck-passing. The results are interpreted within the context of the personality concept “basal psychical self-regulation and integration” of Mikšík (2004), the theory of conflict by Janis and Mann (1977) with regard to the specific research set (working in stressful conditions, team character of work and typical personality characteristics of paramedics: performance orientation and high need for praise). Apparently, to understand the behaviour styles of paramedics in decision-making it is necessary to consider the aforementioned occupational and social aspects.
EN
The research was aimed at finding the measure of influence of cognitive-individual variables (Need for Structure, Ability to Achieve Cognitive Structure, Self-Esteem, Cognitive Style ‘Category Width’), linguistic variables (Verbal Intelligence, Morphology Score), and demographic variables (Study-year, Grade, Living abroad) on syntactic abilities of students studying English language and culture at the Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra. Subsequently, we investigated the relation between syntactic ability and chosen variables. We used the following research methods: PNS Scale (Thompson et al., 1992), AACS (Bar-Tal, 1994), RSES (Rosenberg, 1965), C-W (Pettigrew, 1958), I-S-T (Amthauer, 1953, in Halama, Tomková, 2005), and Syntactic Abilities Test (Užáková et al., 2010). Findings showed a negative correlation between syntactic abilities and Morphology Score, between Study-year, Morphology Score and Grade. A positive correlation was observed between syntactic ability and Verbal Intelligence, and a negative correlation between Verbal Intelligence and Need for Structure. The observed variables explain 34% variability of syntactic ability in foreign language.
EN
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables need for structure and reading comprehension skill in a foreign language. Specifically it aims to identify differences in the scores of examined variables in the following categories: foreign language (EN, DE) and faculty (pf, ff, fpv, combi). For this reason, research was carried out in which 221 university students at CPU in Nitra participated. The PNS scale (Thomson et al., 2001) and tests of foreign language competence were used. The results showed that desire for structure correlates with reading comprehension skill negatively in the case of students of the Faculty of Arts. Need for structure correlates with study years of foreign language negatively in the case of students of the Faculty of Education. Statistically significant differences were proven in personal need for structure and response to lack of structure between the students of the Faculty of Arts and Natural Sciences.
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