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EN
It is repeatedly pointed out in papers reviewing Attila T. Szabó's publications or assessing his completed oeuvre that, given the multifariousness of his work, ethnography, literary criticism and cultural history are also among the disciplines that must keep an eye on his accomplishments, on account of a number of his articles, studies and books that can be seen as belonging to those disciplines. He himself pointed out several times in interviews and on other occasions that he intended to contribute not only to linguistics but to other branches of scholarship as well. However, it has to be added that, surveying his work discipline by discipline, we must never forget that the multiplicity of his interests always pointed towards the integration, rather than towards the divergence, of those fields. This is the case with respect to his relationship to ethnography, too. He wrote papers in ethnography in a manner that he never for a moment gave up his identity as a linguist; indeed, it is just that identity that gives a special flavour to his ethnographic papers. He never considered himself to be an ethnographer or an expert on folklore, even if a number of his writings can be accepted as ethnographic without reservation. The present talk surveys those writings in the first place, but it also includes an ethnographically-minded review of some of the rest of his work.
EN
In 1981 the journal 'Polska Sztuka Ludowa' (Polish Folk Art) published a survey on 'Ethnography - ethnology - anthropology of culture. What are they? What is their objective?'. The survey was a 'sui generis' generation manifesto issued by researchers connected with the editorial board of 'Polska Sztuka Ludowa' (today: 'Konteksty'), who at the time perceived ethnography as a 'science without boundaries' and one which 'opts for freedom'. This methodological breakthrough (which coincided with the proclamation of martial law) became the reason why, according to the author of the article, Polish ethnography lost its innocence. The presented text, written in the form of a recollection, challenges oblivion. Józef Czapski wrote that 'personal reminiscences rebel against the reduction of our past, which has been already pigeonholed by historians and devoured by statistics and figures in the order of millions to become abstract and almost meaningless for the next generation'.
EN
The article presents traditional Krajna dishes from cow colostrum and also signals its therapeutic benefits. Additionally, the author points out the necessity to carry out field studies concerning the problem of the application of colostrum.
EN
Sudan is called 'little Africa', not only because of its geographical location but also due to the large number of different peoples inhabiting it. Even the northern part of the country, apparently homogenous with respect to ethnicity, and unified by Islam and Arab culture, is a place where a variety of tribes have lived together for ages. The article presents material from field research conducted by the author in North Sudan in 2003 and 2004. Nubians, the native population of this corner of the Nile Valley, have come under strong Arab influence which has absorbed both their culture and their language. In the villages under investigation, relics of Nubian culture can now be found only in folklore customs, especially those connected with crucial moments in human life, mostly related to women. The majority of the inhabitants of this part of the Nile Valley belong to Arab tribes, with two major groups, Djaaliin and Djuhaina. The two groups differ significantly in their way of life. Arab Djaliin are farmers who are settled the Nile Valley for good, while Arab Djuhaina are predominantly nomad herdsmen. In mutual relations between the two tribes there are many negative stereotypes and much antagonism, even more so because of the immigration of other minorities, traditionally of a lower and marginalized status, into the Nile Valley, such as Gipsies, Copts (Egyptian Christians) and the so-called Fellata (descendants of former slaves).
EN
Some theoreticians state that the Ethnography and micro-sociology allow the researchers to ripen previously built even frequently obvious THEORIES, and constitute excellent tools to provide detailed descriptions or examples of processes, which were already in the center of Macro inquiry. Micro is, according to them, kind of picturesque supplement for the majority of Macro - studies - the supplement, which confirms (and when contradicts this is only for showing exception) the Macro- Knowledge. On the other hand, Grounded Theory practitioners follow an opposing method - from Micro to Macro - developing their own theories from their fields. Other way of QM practice is simply using of Micro without Macro perspective: Ethnographers analyze the phenomenon doing Micro-sociology, strongly close to a chosen particular example - directly from their fi eld- they avoid construction of theoretical models, because they believe that social processes are dynamic and depend on interaction (so each time different); as a consequence people's behavior cannot be 'modelized'. Started from this last perspective (micro without theoretical ambitions) I was surprised to see the whole specialty of sociology (Mobility), well organized and with a lot of publications (Macro level; large statistics) working with erroneous tools regarding wrong models. My ethnographical fi eld (started in 2003) - life-science researchers' world - done in different countries (France, Poland, Germany, USA) gives me the data for showing that this obvious and largely practical perspective is not exact. Based on the results of my research on careers and mobility of life-science scientists, I showed that starting from Micro is not only one of the way of doing science but also it is the necessary method for providing the Macro Sociology. This method of working Micro-Macro, provides the stability of research process, and, in consequence, the maturity of our 'young discipline' - sociology (according to Kuhn's and other sociologists of knowledge).
EN
The paper describes the relationship between social anthropology and development, that is, since its inception rated as ambiguous and ambivalent. It presented forms of engagement of social anthropologists in development projects, while it distinguishes three basic approaches anthropology to development: instrumental, populist, and deconstructionist. In form of overview study it approaches a discourse widespread especially in the Western Anglo-Saxon academic society, while its theoretical and methodological assumptions are applicable in the study of development in the Central European context. The paper identifies the basic theoretical and methodological postulates and current trends in anthropology of development and social change.
EN
The text aims to present musical descriptions drawn from the many accounts of Bronislaw Pilsudski (the brother of Marshal Józef Pilsudski), a Polish researcher who, as a deportee by the Russians, was studying the life and culture of the Ainu people - the ethnic minority who in the past lived in Sakhalin, in the region of Tohoku, in the Kuril Islands, and today are mostly living on Hokkaido Island. In the first part of the article the Pilsudski's life and his interest in ethnography is described, with a particular emphasis on his investigation of the Ainu people and his characterisation of them, in the light of his notes. In the second part of the text, based on reports by Pilsudski of the bear feast-day among the Ainu people, and musical descriptions, which he provided, he gives precious information about the function of music in the ceremonies of the Ainu, and these show Pilsudski's deep insight of into the life and culture of these people. The article is illustrated by some photographs taken in Sakhalin by Pilsudski himself.
EN
Global flows and their geopolitical power relations powerfully shape the environments in which children lead their everyday lives. Children’s images, imaginations and ideas of distant places are part of these global flows and the everyday activities children perform in preschool. Research explores how through curricula young children are moulded into global and cosmopolitan citizens and how children make sense of distant places through globally circulating ideas, images and imaginations. How these ideas, images and imaginations form an unproblematised part of young children’s everyday preschool activities and identity formation has been much less explored, if at all. The author uses Massey’s (2005) concept of a ‘global sense of place’ in her analysis of ethnographic data collected in an Australian preschool to explore how children produce global qualities of preschool places and form and perform identities by relating to distant places. She pays special attention to how place, objects and children become entangled, and to the sensory aspects of their emplaced experiences, as distant spatialities embed in and as children’s bodies inhabit the preschool place. To conclude the author calls for critical pedagogies to engage with children’s use of these constructions to draw similarities or contrast aspects of distant places and self, potentially reproducing global power relations by fixing representations of places and through uncritically enacting stereotypes.
EN
The increasing digital mediation in the field of ethnographic inquiry is undeniable. Through the engagement of individual users, governments, corporations, and even grassroots organizations, the ubiquity of computational technology has a far-reaching impact on social life. Scholarship on digital ethnography has fallen along a continuum between theory and methodology. By shifting the focus of the digital from a subject to a method of research, this article contends for a methodologically centred framework of digital ethnography that can transcend the digital/physical binary that is more fraught in discourse than it is in the human experience of contemporary culture. Within this framework, ethnographers can leverage the digital affordances of scalability and inter modality to uncover new perspectives on field observations and document social and cultural processes with empirical specificity and precision. Ethnographers can use data and new informational discoveries to extend of their field-based knowledge, achieving what the author refers to as “augmented empiricism.” In this article, he examines how working with a variety of digital tools, including web scraping, mapping, and sound visualization, could widen the scope of ethnographic work and deepen our practice. Part two focuses on the process of interpreting field data and the value of geospatial visualizations. The last part explores digital methods that magnify the perception of physical senses like sound, sight, and space.
10
Content available remote READY FOR INCLUSIVE EDUCATION? ETHNOGRAPHIC AND SURVEY PERSPECTIVES
51%
EN
Endeavours to integrate children of different abilities in mainstream education have been present for more than two decades, but the principles of inclusive education have gained legislative support only recently. This paper is an attempt to contribute to an understanding of day-to-day interaction among pupils and their classmates with special educational needs and to examine conditions that might have an impact on an inclusive atmosphere in the class. The paper is based on findings from a representative survey of inclusive attitudes of fifth graders and ethnographic observation in the subsample of classes covered by the survey. The paper begins by outlining its theoretical framework, which suggests the relevance of classic sociological ideas about the role of schools in promoting societal peace and solidarity and presents a theoretical reflection on inclusive education policies. The paper then introduces its methodology and the results of two interconnected research projects – the representative survey of pupils’ inclusive attitudes and the ethnography of daily life in regular school classes with integrated children who have special educational needs. The results of both projects are mutually supporting and show rather lukewarm attitudes towards classmates with SEN, who are often isolated and sometimes openly brushed aside. Finally, the authors try to elucidate why cultivating friendly and inclusive interactions among children has held a marginal place in teachers’ work.
11
Content available remote MY LOOK AT ETHNOGRAPHY
51%
Lud
|
2004
|
tom 88
187-202
EN
The text is a free peregrination trying to answer some questions on ethnology of today and author's 'place' in it. He makes an attempt at expressing his own position on ethnology. Assuming that ethnology is a science with limits that are difficult to be determined, he believes that it should be also open to other languages of the discourse. Writing about his favourite authors (R. Barthes, J. Cliffiord, C. Geertz, K. Hastrup) the author focuses on the problem of the presence of fiction in the language of ethnologists. He also describes a certain evolution of fiction in ethnology. Addressing the issue of field studies, he acknowledges their importance, although he does not claim that they are necessary. An extensive part of the article deals with visual anthropology (which is the main area of his interest), its extent and some translational suggestions.
12
Content available remote RELIGIOSITY BEHIND BARS: FORMS OF INMATE'S RELIGIOSITY IN THE CZECH PRISON SYSTEM
51%
EN
The text focuses on the multiple forms of religiosity (based on different types of motivation) of inmates in Czech prisons from the perspective of three groups of respondents: prison inmates, prison guards and representatives of a number of churches. The study is based on an ethnographic study of prisons in the Czech Republic. The data corpus includes qualitative interviews with selected actors in the prison world, material gathered through observations inside prisons and an analysis of the documentation on the Czech penitentiary system. Through this research, we found that the key respondents feel that there is some ambivalence around the religiosity of inmates and that the pragmatic approach many inmates take to faith is becoming a controversial issue. Our research demonstrated that the presence of religiosity of inmates in prison is not really accepted in a clearly positive manner as it may seem at first glance. On the contrary, the presence of it in prisons has become the subject of controversy among its main actors.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2022
|
tom 77
|
nr 9
711 – 722
EN
Currently, one can encounter numerous contributions that apply phenomenology and its approach to experience in the fields of anthropological and ethnographic research. The convergence of phenomenology and anthropology has its own reasons. I will first trace the thematic areas of this collaboration and present specific projects, and secondly specify the questions and applied methods that phenomenology brings to the discourse of the specialized sciences. In a third step, I will build on the original relationship between phenomenology and anthropology that leads us to the work of H. Plessner; that is not only meant to be a historical look back, but also an updating of such themes that can be productively re-developed in the present. In particular, I will ask what might be the position of H. Plessner in the current context, since his works are absent in contemporary authors.
14
Content available remote PRAHY DOMOVA Z: ETNOGRAFIE KONEKTIVITY V POBYTOVÉ SOCIÁLNÍ SLUŽBĚ
51%
Sociológia (Sociology)
|
2023
|
tom 55
|
nr 3
269 – 292
EN
In this ethnographic study, I describe daily life at Home Z, an asylum for 100 residents. I explore the tensions between the inclusive orientation of social services and the system of the total institution. Based on actor-network theory and on Goffman’s model of the total institution, I develop a methodological tool of semi-permeable socio-material thresholds in order to investigate the question of residents’ connectivity with people, things, and places beyond the authority of the institution. In so doing, as I aim for a deeper understanding of the formation of specific institutional spaces, I discover that Home Z's residents are living on an island that is kept continuously separated from the sea of wider society.
15
Content available remote JOZEF OBREBSKI AND MACEDONIAN ETHNOGRAPHY
51%
EN
The work of the ethnologist and sociologist Jozef Obrebski on Macedonian folk culture was not known in Macedonia until now. But recently his three books have been published, as well as the album of photographs of Porech in the 1930s. Thanks to these publications we know more on Macedonian folk life in the first part of the 20th century. Thus, very valuable material from the Archives of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA will enrich Macedonian folklorists, anthropologists and sociologists, as it contains a treasure of theoretical thoughts and methodological ideas. Folklorists will find unique and original material, e.g. songs performed with different customs, legends, especially those in honor of Prince Marko, etc. Ethnologists will discover illustrative material containing folk customs and their origin, descriptions of dreams, blessings and the curses, beliefs in magic, especially in health magic. The sociologist will discover distinct sociological data on the rural Porech life, while the theologist will get some information related to the pre-Christian religion, influence of religion over the group, relations between social structure of the village and ritual activities. The science of the law will find some data about the customary law and morality of behavior.
EN
An attempt at perceiving the ethnography of Michel Leiris through the prism of the programme declarations of Surrealism. Leiris comprehended ethnographic writings in a manner typical for every Surrealist: writing is a form of self-expression as is ethnography. The ethnography represented by Michel Leiris concentrated on a description of the unknown discovered in the known. This is a 'reversed' ethnography since the examined object casts light on the examiner; the otherness of that which is unknown becomes a pretext for self-cognition, for discerning and describing the unknown in us. Ethnography, Leiris seemed to maintain, can (but does not have to) offer hope for discovering some sort of a way of establishing relations with the world which would assist in understanding not the order of the world but its disorder and differentiation; it is also helpful for finding balance between alien elements, mutual strangers. Ethnography is tantamount to manipulating details, Leiris wrote, shifting small registers of reality, noting down thoughts, and documenting the world on innumerable fiches. The essence of all those activities is not a reconstruction of the described. The most important value is reflection: the self-reflection of the subject.
EN
The aim of this study is to offer a paradigmatic analysis of the development of the discipline – called predominantly “ethnography” and “ethnology” in the 20th century Slovakia – in the background of the history of its development within one of the key institutions in Slovakia where research is conducted – the Institute of Ethnology and Social Anthropology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IESA SAS). It is extremely interesting in our case how, in a relatively short period of its existence, the institution under study reacted flexibly to changes in the political regimes and discursive paradigms which resulted in system changes. The changes in external settings forced the institution to interact and intervene, which was reflected in different intensities of reorganisation of the internal ecosystem in different periods. On the other hand, it is also possible to observe major resilience which enabled the institution to preserve internal consistency of its processes. In the case of the IESA SAS, we can rather speak of “micro-historical temporalities” (measured approximately over a period of individual decades) in the background of more general longue dureé processes (i.e. long-lasting and global historical changes) in which work teams, specific personalities at leadership positions as well as the external ecosystem were significantly engaged. Within the history of the institution, the study also observes the life and modus operandi of two important generations, denoting them, in terms of the metaphorical discourse, as the generation of founders(1950s and 1960s) and the generation of builders(1970s and 1980s).
EN
This paper analyses the theoretical and practical work of Ludvík Kunz (1914–2005) in the fields of ethnography and museology during his tenure at the Ethnographic Institute of the Moravian Museum in Brno. Along with examining the basic theoretical tenets of Kunz’s holistic approach to ethnographic museology, we also trace the circumstances and motivation that led to their formulation during times of major societal changes. In the final section, we focus on the application of these theoretical concepts to the activities of his home institution, his broader work in the context of Czechoslovak museology and his tenure as university lecturer.
EN
The main purpose of this paper is to approach some issues concerning intersubjectivity in fieldwork. The field experience addressed here was conducted on the Portuguese-Spanish border area demanding from the author to move across the border and assume, on a daily basis, her status as a Portuguese citizen like half of her interviewees as well as being a foreigner like the other half. One situation that was particularly relevant regarding the level of researcher’s identity was caused by the dual-perception subjects formed about the anthropologist: being Portuguese like "us" (anthropology at home) or being Portuguese like "them" (anthropology abroad). Within this framework of reflection this paper looks at the interactional process through which knowledge is acquired, shared and transmitted. It also explores the dynamics of the subject-researcher relationship in order to understand how this relationship influenced both collation and analysis of the author’s data.
ARS
|
2005
|
tom 38
|
nr 1
42-52
EN
The case study of Brooklyn Museum of Art in New York is an attempt to discuss the issue of multiculturalism in art museums traditionally based on universalistic (Western) aesthetics. The story of Western art which once was central for the museum is now more complicated by the addition of non-Western art/objects. However, one of the biggest American museums - Brooklyn Museum of Art in New York goes beyond the polarities 'high art' vs. 'ethnographic object' showing the hybrid culture as the result of colonialism, migration, slavery, diaspora, conflicts or oppression. The authoress summarizes some important views at relations between art and ethnicity what is one of the main concerns in the museums in multicultural society, presented by Svetlana Alpers, James Clifford or Susan Vogel. Dismantling 'true representations' in the museum opened new issues: the issue of parallelisms and horizontal surveys, both promoted by Homi Bhabha as cultural paradigm during the exhibition 'Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration'. Hybridity, the term used by Annie E. Coombes is articulated as a symptom of what is identified as postcolonial in a sense of the postmodern strategy of bricolage superficially reproducing and celebratory affirming that all are equal. Still, under the cover of celebration (and fast-food like consumption) of differences there is the inequality of access to economic and political power. And only the dominant groups articulate the ways in which such differences are constituted.
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