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Content available remote Luka konkurencyjna - koncepcja i metodyka badania
W artykule podjęto próbę wypracowania koncepcji luki konkurencyjnej oraz wskazania sposobu pomiaru tej luki. W zaproponowanym ujęciu konkurencyjność przedsiębiorstwa może być opisana za pomocą trzech wymiarów: pozycji konkurencyjnej, potencjału konkurencyjnego i strategii konkurencyjnej. Luka konkurencyjna występuje wtedy, gdy firma, której konkurencyjność badamy i mierzymy, różni się in minus od konkurenta (konkurentów) pod względem pozycji konkurencyjnej i/lub potencjału konkurencyjnego i/lub strategii konkurencyjnej. Każdy z trzech wyróżnionych wymiarów konkurencyjności (luki konkurencyjnej) wymaga operacjonalizacji, to znaczy opisu za pomocą zmiennych szczegółowych poddających się empirycznemu pomiarowi.
In the paper the author tries to formulate the concept of competitive gap and proposes the way of measuring it. The competitiveness of the enterprise can be described using three dimensions: competitive position, competitive potential and competitive strategy. The competitive gap means the difference (in negative sense) between firm under investigation and its competitor (competitors) in respect of competitive position and/or competitive potential and/or competitive strategy. Each of the above mentioned dimensions of the competitiveness should be operationalised i.e. described with detailed variables which can be measured empirically.
The developed market economies exploit 'the price mechanism' being assisted by the operation of various institutional instruments and measures which rather support and complement the regulatory role of the neoclassical price system than limit the influence of the market. A specific form of the mutual interplay of competitive and cooperative relations is the concept of clusters. The article attempts to reconstruct the most important elements of this concept in relation of the economic role of clusters to the theory of regulation. We present the origins and the relevant definitions of clusters, their attributes and typologies, as well as the criteria of their identification. The results of our enquiries seem to support the thesis that the concept of clusters can be regarded as an important complement of neoclassical economic theory and as an extension of the new institutional economics thanks to the introduction of another dimension, viz. of the element of trust.
The article aims to identify and assess the key external and internal macro conditions that influence the development of the Polish economy and companies, both, at present and in the future perespective. The first section is devoted to diagnosis of the current global macroeconomic environment. Emphasis has been put on the systemic conditions of globalization and the impact of globalization on interest rates, prices and international trade. Special attention has been put on the role of the Asian emerging market economies. The second section contains an attempt to assess perspectives of economic development, sources of disequilibria in trade and capital flows as well as potential correction scenarios of the accrued disequilibria. The following section deals with the situation on the oil and commodity market and assesses the impact of globalization on wages and salaries. The above analysis and context is then used to assess the Polish companies' and the whole economy perspectives. The particular emphasis is put on development of tradable sector, investment and labor markets rigidities.
Research on the foundations of competitive strategy and the resource-based approach to the theory of the firm seems to confirm the hypothesis that strategic management is an example of the mutual permeability of economic and management theories. Achievements in both of these disciplines seem to have a complementary character - progress in the former is a condition for the evolution of the latter, and vice versa. Moreover, it seems that for both, cognitive and practical reasons, further integration of economic and managerial theories of the firm is a foregone conclusion. There are not many arguments, however, that would support the thesis that this integration may lead to a synthesis resulting in the creation of one, universal theory of the firm. It is highly probable that on the one hand, many theories will exist alongside as complementary approaches and, on the other hand, some theories will eliminate others.
The nature and substance of relations among economics and other social sciences is complex. The relations vary in time. Since the late 1950, social sciences (law, management, political science, sociology, anthropology, psychology, economic history, geography) had been subjected to invasive inroads by economics. Economic theories and notions were used to explain phenomena that traditionally belonged to other disciplines, Starting from 1980. we observe a reversal - economics addresses other bodies of knowledge (e.g. experimental psychology, management or sociology) to supply it with data and the obtained results. In the article it is shown that this 'sui generis' economic imperialism had constituted an interdisciplinary extension of the methodological ideal of unification, which was present in the economic theory of main stream. We inspire to demonstrate that the reversal and the consecutive opening of economics towards other theories, that is, its partial departure from imperialism, had its roots in the internal theoretical and empirical problems encountered by economists. We formulate a methodological assessment of the process of reorientation of economics towards the cooperation with other sciences.
The issue of externalities generated by the foreign direct investments (FDI) is widely discussed in world literature. Alongside analyses of national economies of the host countries a great deal of attention is focused on the strategies of domestic companies that are confronted with the results of activities pursued by foreign investors. The article contains a synthetic examination of literature dwelling on external effects of FDI, mainly from the standpoint of domestic firms and organizations. The authors present the results of their empirical study, conducted in 2004, that was centered on the external effects of activities of foreign investors in Poland. During the study the attention was directed toward the strategies of domestic firms attempting to adjust their behavior to the conditions that result when foreign investors invade the Polish market.
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