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As the Constitution stipulates that 'The Council of Ministers conducts home and foreign policy' (Article 146.1), the author begins his article by emphasizing the comprehensiveness of the term 'policy'. It is the Council of Ministers and only the Council which is empowered to conduct the policy. He explains the social roles of the politician, the official (civil servant), and the expert, and dwell upon the status of 'rzad fachowców' (a caretaker government by experts). This leads to the examination of the complex issues of responsibility, the implications of parliamentary scrutiny, and the dual nature of executive power under the Constitution (the President, the Council of Ministers). The author elaborates on the duty of the President to act - in the domain of foreign policy - in consultation with the Prime Minister and the relevant minister (Article 133.3). Policy assessment and/or implementation requires use of such criteria as 'raison d'état' and/or national interest, and in Poland the notion of consensual policy has also become important as part and parcel of the transformation of the political system. The author concludes the article by proposing two constitutional amendments: (1) Article 133.3 should require that the President acts at the Council of Ministers' request or by the Council's previous consent; and (2) clause 144.3.4 should be deleted (President should be deprived of the prerogative to introduce an act of Parliament). The author's final observation is that although nothing will happen without the proper actions of politicians, civil servants and experts, it is also true that without a proper school education that inculcates the rule of law nothing will be permanent.
Izabela Branicka’s manor-house during the time of her independent administration was a workplace for people deriving from diferent social environments and groups. Her closest associates were undoubtedly top clerks in the court hierarchy. She particularly appreciated cooperation with treasurer Wojciech Matuszewicz and personal assistant Jakub Popławski. Both Matuszewicz and Popławski were long-standing and tested employees who, irrespective of anything, were always loyally standing at their employer’s side. Another equally significant feature of Izabela Branicka as an employer was a sense of responsibility for her subordinates. In the face of personal misfortunes, old age or sickness, I. Branicka took responsibility for her subordinates and tried within her power to help them in everyday drudgery. And just this attitude caused that her associates were usually loyal people and tried to do everything they could to earn their wealthy patron’s grace in as honest as possible way.
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