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tom 60
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nr 2
143 – 155
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The goal of the article was to at least partly systematize the knowledge gained by the Slovak text studies as a generalizing work in this field does not exist in our country. The ideas built on the scientific articles within text studies written in the second half of the 20th century. The beginning of the Slovak text studies in the 1950s is represented by the works by Jozef Felix, Karol Rosenbaum and Mikuláš Bakoš. Later studies by Nora Krausová, František Miko and Peter Zajac form the next stage of its development and with regard to the future seem to be trend-setting. Owing to their communicative and inspiring nature, the summary can be considered a good starting point for an effective exploitation of their potential. Based on the study of the texts used at the birth of Slovak text studies it can be concluded that the most serious practical problems are related to the way texts are edited and the choice of the basic text. Using the texts written by younger authors the scientific character of the text studies was demonstrated as well as how they are bound with literary theory and why they are important for the correct understanding of literary texts. The summary and assessment of the Slovak text studies in the article map their most important topics and debatable issues, relate the results of the research by the literary scientists engaged in this field and draw attention to their various approaches. They also raise questions about the direction of the Slovak text studies in the future.
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The paper is concerned with the editions of fiction works associated with the name of the evangelical preacher and teacher Ladislav Bartolomeides. In the first part the subject of the analysis is Bartolomeides´s reeditions of two Czech translations: a popular didactic satire Spis užitečný a velmi potřebný od Doktora Grobiana z upřímnosti učinený (A Useful and Really Necessary Treatise by Doctor Grobian Written in a Honest Manner, 1784) translated from German into Czech around the end of the 16th century and a work written by the ancient historian Josephus Flavius O válce židovské knihy sedmery (Seven Books on the Jewish War, 1805), which was translated from Latin by Pavel Aquilinus Hradecký (1533). The analysis shows the goal and the motives of Bartolomeides´s editorial activities and analyses the extent of the changes he made to the texts. The second part of the paper deals with editorial possibilities of presenting Bartolomeides´s original work Rozmlouvání Jozefa Druhého s Matějem Prvním Korvínus řečeným v království zemřelých (A Dialogue between Joseph II and Matthias I Corvinus in the Kingdom of the Dead, 1790), in which the form of the Lucianesque dialogue is joined with the defence of the monarch Joseph II. In order to assess all the functions of the text objectively there has been an idea to publish all the three versions together – the diplomatic transcription, the transcribed form and the translation into contemporary Slovak.
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The magazine Hlas, published between the years 1898 and 1904, had a significant impact on the political, social and cultural context at that time. Thinking in Slovakia in the 20th century was formed in relation to the magazine and its legacy on several levels. The goal of the paper is to carry out a survey of the reflections on the Hlasist movement, consciously constrained to the field of literature and literary science, although occasionally making inevitable references to a wider context of social science. The sources and texts analysed are divided here into four areas based on the time of creation, author´s position, text strategy assuming a target group, genre and interpretation range. The aim of the analysis is not a review of the stereotypes used to interpret the Hlasist movement so far but an attempt at new reading based on the latest methodologies. A new reading of the texts indicates the literary historical process of creating the image of the Hlasist movement. It also defines the nature of the tools used by individual authors to create the given image (e.g. legitimization, canonization, ideological interpretation, subversion of the traditional interpretation etc.).
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Content available remote SLOVENSKÁ ELEKTRONICKÁ LITERATÚRA
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The study maps and describes the production of electronic literature in the Slovak cultural environment. Even though it focuses on the era after communism, theoretical texts on the connections between cybernetics and arts, with discussions on the possibilities for literature and literary theory, dating from the 1950s onwards, are also presented. The study divides Slovak electronic literature according to the way the authors treated the digital text: whether they appropriated the existing one (Legel, Labuda, Barok, Gruska, Bartoš, Ivan, Husárová-Panák, Šicko), combined the appropriated text with their authorial text (Juhász, Kitta) or wrote their own text (Šulej, Murin, Juhász, Husárová – Panák).
EN
The sermon literature, as documented by manuscripts and prints archived in Slovak memory preservation institutions, played an important role in Slovak literature of older periods since as early as the Middle Ages. Texts of sermons testify to the key developmental processes in the history of Slovak literature, document the changes in languages used (leading to the use of the native language – Slovak), and reflect the values and topical issues of individual periods. Other fields of research – besides theology – started focusing on Slovak homiletic literature after the Velvet Revolution when religious genres started enjoying greater scholarly interest. The widening of research focus so that it would encompass new themes and research viewpoints can most readily be observed in monographs from the fields of philology, history, and literary history. Religious writing is also the focus of three research projects concentrating on Slovak and Central European texts. A common feature of these is a mutual cooperation between specialists and intensified academic communication and exchange of experience on the international level.
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Content available remote POLITICAL INPUT IN MAKING POETS CULTURAL ICONS
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This study analyses the role and degree of political involvement in the process of constructing poets as cultural icons in Polish and Slovak literature in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. The main focus is on the Polish poets Zbigniew Herbert and Czesław Miłosz and the Slovak poet Laco Novomeský, but research also takes into consideration other Polish and Slovak poets (Wisława Szymborska, Ján Ondruš, and Ivan Štrpka). This examination reveals an important political input behind constructing these poets as cultural icons using the symbolic potential that the poets accrued over the years and were able to represent. The dynamic character of icons (accelerated by great geopolitical and social changes in East-Central Europe), however, causes a constant re-semantization and partially diminishes their iconic status, especially for upcoming generations. Despite a rearrangement of the hierarchy of layers in their iconic status, the poets are always associated with their poetic work, and the notable quality of this work keeps their potential for remaining or becoming cultural icons regardless of political circumstances.
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Content available remote TEMATIZÁCIA MOTÍVU TROCH SVÄTOPLUKOVÝCH PRÚTOV V SLOVENSKÝCH POVESTIACH
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The subject of the article is to study the motif of three Svätopluk‘s rods in Slovak legends. Textual analysis, interpretation and comparison are used to present the ways of grasping the issue in the Slovak literary context. The first literary approach to the processing of the legend can be found in the work of Jozef Cíger Hronský, later on, it is present in legends by Ľudovít Janota, Ján Domasta and Milan Ferko. Specific legends will undergo textual analysis and the means and methods by which the authors achieve particular atmosphere of the time in which the legends are set will be explored. Expected educational intent of the legend is modified by each author in an original way. The article also deals with the question of how the motif of Svätopluk‘s rods becomes a part of the literary context. At the same time, other examples of texts related to the motif of three Svatopluk‘s rods as part of the narrative will be discussed and analysed.
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The goal of the paper is to deal with the issue of a generation representative and to answer the question how the affiliation to a generation was applied to selected authors in the line of Slovak prose written in the 1960s. At the same time there is an attempt to find out whether Milan Zelinka as a late debut author belongs or not to the line mentioned above. The paper is built on the dictionary entries defining „generation“, the history of Slovak literature, critical memoirs, contemporary research into Slovak literature written in the 1960s as well as the literary reflection on Zelinka´s debut of those times. The new concepts became the centre of attention – authenticity, estrangement, absurdity, experiment, everyday life elements, chance, anxiety, loneliness or dehumanization. While looking for a single generational line, having support in the survey named „Hľadanie prózy“/Finding Prose, which was carried out in Kultúrny život (1967), two lines of literature have been found. On the one hand finding and testing new techniques and methods of writing and on the other hand turning to the inner world of a human, authenticity or subjectivization. The book debut Dych/Breath by Milan Zelinka has been classified in the same generation line (Peter Jaroš, Rudolf Sloboda, Pavel Vilikovský, Pavel Hrúz, Ladislav Ballek, Dušan Kužel, Vlado Bednár) for several reasons. His short stories feature notable experiment, grotesque elements, absurdity, bizarre elements, parody, comic situations in order to describe the characters, their estranged, lonely individualities, manifested in the author´s own creative gesture.
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The goal of the paper is an analytical and interpretatory reflection on Urban´s short story V súmraku/In the Twilight from the collection titled Výkriky bez ozveny (Screams without Echos, 1928). The interpretation was written with the ambition to contribute to the literary and scientific corpus dedicated to Urban´s literary work with regard to various text forms of his short story published in the years 1928, 1943 and 1965, and also to comment on the parallels between the short story in question and Russian literature (Dostoyevsky, Andreyev). The resources used for writing the paper include the editions of the short story: the original edition of the collection of novellas was provided by Báčki Petrovac library, the later ones are widely available. The literary and scientific resources included writings by experts of Urban´s literary work (Koli, Rakús, Števček), whose findings are related to the subject and the goal of the paper. The comparison of the editions of the short story In the Twilight from the years 1928, 1943 and 1965 helped discover the tendency to weaken the explicitness by making the expressions more and more vague and by reducing the narrator´s comments, as well as to increase the suspense in the short story through the reduction mentioned above and the tendency to strengthen the lyric and vivid elements in the text. The nature of the contrasts on the syntactic and semantic levels was described in order to clarify the way of creating the tension-and-ease arc employed in the short story. The presence of the allusions to Russian literature was demonstrated by including the quotations from the literary works dealing with the creation of characters in the situation of a murderer´s inner drama (Andreyev), the similarity between the literary works of Urban and Dostoyevsky was presented by comparing the outer motifs (the image of beating a horse, an axe as a murder weapon) as well as the inner ones (the motive for the crime, the breaking point of the conflict with God). The paper is supposed to enrich the literary and scientific reflection on Urban´s literary work. The in-depth interpretation of the structure of the short story In the Twilight contributes to the research into Urban´s poetics.
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The paper analyses presence of spirituality in a so-called legionary short story by Jozef Gregor Tajovský (1874 – 1940) “Hlucháň”/“The Muffled” from the collection of proses Na vojne (At War, 1919). The interpretation is based on the theorem that Marcela Mikulová formulated about the main character as a modern-day saint and Ivica Hajdučeková´s thesis about the prayer as a „spiritualem“ reaching as far as the implicit level of the literary text and labelling the main character with the attribute „apostolizing“. Using „vertical“ characteristics, Tajovský depicted the central character of the short story as a spiritually strong person, for whom belief in God is an essential attribute of living, thinking and doing. As religiosity and spirituality were in harmony in his life, being religious became the fundamental categorical imperative. Dynamics of love and courage to spread the word of God shifted him from the periphery to the centre of the situation, which made him an example to follow. In line with this, he developed the attributes of the apostle prototype, which was due to his personal dialogue with God elevated to the character of „homo religiosus“. Tajovský used the contrastive principle of the high and low as an active ingredient, which affected the inner level of the text. The outcome was a paradox which became the writer´s tool for penetrating deeper into the inner worlds of the characters.
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tom 60
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nr 3
233 – 243
EN
The study is focused on the literary-critical writings by Ján Rozner published between the mid-1950s and the mid-1960s, which are compiled in the collection of his reviews called Pohľad v zrkadlách (A Look in the Mirrors, 1969). They have all the attributes of the situation in Czechoslovak culture and society cautiously but still moving from the normative paradigm set by the Socialist Realism doctrine to more spontaneous and more pluralist forms. As regards the arts and culture, the liberalization of the social situation was manifested in diagnosing and criticizing the acts of „schematism“ and in gradually undermining the Socialist Realism doctrine, in growing tendencies to see the concept of Socialist literature within a wider context, accenting the independence of the arts from the political power. The latest research into the period of time in question suggests that the process was not homogeneous and linear, but rather discontinuous and heterogeneous, containing obvious relapses, controversies and paradoxes, which is significantly proved in the analysed Rozner´s writings. Rozner carries out a consistent analysis of the notions used in the contemporary cultural discourse, because he sees them as the world structure processing medium. His goal is then to restore critical-analytical thinking and to point at the dynamic nature of the cognitive process. One of the central notions related to the immediate present, which makes it different from the past at the same time, is the „multidimensional“, „multifarious“, „multi-individual“ nature of each approach, which helps spread „the freedom of open possibilities“. However, establishing the framework for making the individual processes and attitudes more dynamic, individualistic, heterogeneous is unquestioned in Rozner´s articles from this period, and presenting the richness and variety eventually refers to the whole of „the Socialist Realist arts“, more or less accented, yet undoubted.
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Content available remote JAROŠOVO „DEFENZÍVNE ČÍTANIE“ MAGICKÉHO REALIZMU
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The study considers the potential presence of the poetics of Latin American magic realism within the system of Slovak literature, particularly in the fiction of Peter Jaroš. In the first part the entropic nature of the concept magical realism is highlighted together with several remarks about the presence of European sources in its structure (J. M. Meletinskij, A. Housková). The second part is an account of defensive forms based on critical reflections on the fiction of P. Jaroš provided by V. Oleríny, S. Pokrivčáková, I. Sulík, V. Šabík and P. Zajac, of reading (H. Bloom) concerning the poet initiation of magical realism into Slovak literature in the late 1970s
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The author stated in the study introduction that the social and literary crisis in the period of schematism, which suppressed 'low', entertaining genres as 'bourgeois relic', had also its non intentional positive consequences on writing on crime story. In the 60s of the 20th century following boom of publishing detective novels brought also a need of their defence, what happened with help of scholarly reflection on literary scholarship (J. Skvorecky, J. Zabrana, F. Jungwirth, K. Földvari, R. Stukovsky, V. Petrik, T. Schwarz, E. Klinger and the others). The author comes to the 'basement' of a detective genre in the study and makes analysis of literary courses of Nick Carter, Tom Shark and Leon Clifton. He analysis e.g. Tom Shark's stories keeping the schemes of classical type of a crime story: a criminal is always mysterious, then narrative block follows the investigation (in 'Tom Shark's like stories' adventurous and dominant in all composition) and finally the criminal is disclosed in scene presenting solution as one of the participating characters, usually 'the least-likely person'. In spite of classical crime story those stories do not follow the fair play rules, articulated by former establishers of the detective genre. Nowadays thrillers become close to 'Tom Shark's like stories', of course, they are more worked out in plot and in stylistics.
EN
This literary history paper is concerned with the changes of the Slovak literary criticism over a certain period of time. It reconstructs the process of the criticism becoming temporarily emancipated, i.e. the autonomous field of literary criticism was established in the mid-1960s, and, subsequently, it ceased to exist during the social and cultural „normalization“ in the early years of the following decade. The paper consists of three chapters; the first one presents two polemic articles by critic Milana Hamada (the argument with Vladimír Mináč and a polemic over Miroslav Válek´s collection of poems Milovanie v husej koži /Lovemaking with Goose Pimples on/), which made a significant contribution to forming the autonomous field of literary criticism in the mid-1960s. It defined its territory against the contemporary power structures as well as the literary field: criticism stopped serving and became, for the first time after 1948, an autonomous factor of the social context in those times. The second half of the 1960s was thus a short period of time when the relative emancipation of domestic literary criticism influenced by the external limits of the Socialist regime was finalized. The contemporary structure of the literary field, i.e. the genres and other forms of critical discourse, is discussed in the second chapter of the paper. The changes in the social situation after the invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 had a dramatic impact on culture and the humanities. A number of decisions made in the name of power severely affected the domestic literary criticism. Several of the significant critics were ousted from public life. Some of the cultural and literary magazines providing space for reflection on literature were banned while other ones went through significant transformations. It was a gradual process, the outline of which is reconstructed in the final part of the paper. As a result of the interventions, literary criticism lost its autonomy and again came under control of political power just like in the 1940s and 1950s, although the new conditions were different.
Konštantínove listy
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2014
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tom 7
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nr 7
61 – 72
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The main aim of the paper is to present the literary-historical analysis of the Slovak-Macedonian literary, cultural and linguistic relations in the 20th century and in the present. The study offers an overview of the history of literary translation which has had a major impact of the nature of the Slovak-Macedonian literary and linguistic associations. Other forms of contacts, especially of cultural and historical character, are mentioned as well. Finally, a detailed survey of bibliography is included, which covers the variety of Slovak-Macedonian literary landscape. These include also translations and book reviews from 1945 to 2012.
EN
The goal of the paper is to outline and comment on the basic features of the semantic field of the existential discourse, especially its key concepts, i.e. existential literature on the one hand and Existentialism on the other hand. The paper offers the text that presents the overview research into existential phenomena focused on the world and Czech contexts, however, not only in the area of literary science, but also in the wider area, mostly the philosophical one. The research into the theoretical practice of existential thinking has in the long term run been showing inconsistency, even vagueness in the use of the terminology of the existential discourse as the same terms often have had various meanings. With regard to the standard frameworks applied to thinking about Existentialism, the outcome of the paper lies in showing the varied approach to the term Existentialism, or a complete abandonment to favour the term as the key term of the existential discourse. The same applies to literary science as well as philosophy, while the theory and history of philosophy have been trying to grasp the existential phenomena in a more appropriate way independent of the traditional understanding preferring Existentialism as defined mainly by J.-P. Sartre. In the context of literary science the outcomes of the paper can only prove useful after the new existential discourses seen in a wider sense have been applied to particular literary practice, e.g. Slovak literature of the 20th century.
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The article shows that from the 19th century until now, reflections has been appearing on a form of adequate monographic depiction on Ludovit Stur (1815-1856), the main personality of the Slovak national revival. According to the author's opinion the biggest problem of the already existing monographs was that they provided only a one-side ideological explanation, but Stur's various activities cannot be reduced to one common ideological platform. The result of such reduction is a constant feeling of non complexity, dissatisfaction, and tendentiousness of both cultural interpretations and interpretations of literary scholarship concerning Stur's impact. The author suggests respecting Stur's ambiguity in his works and also positive, semantically unreduced quality. He also proposes resigning on seeking of common variable quantity in the series of Stur's cognitive mistakes and discontinuities unlike he rather recommends an approach that introduces Stur's work and life as an artistic project, as directional performance, in which ascetic love to excellence is to dominate over.
EN
The paper focuses on Slovak prose written in the 1860s. The first part maps the social and cultural context of literary production and the state of the national emancipation process which received new impulses in the new political situation during the period of time between the end of absolutism and the Austro-Hungarian Compromise in 1867. The other part of the paper pays attention to social novellas written by Mikuláš Štefan Ferienčík (1825 – 1881), Daniel Bachát (1840 – 1906), Viliam Pauliny-Tóth (1826 – 1877) and Štefan Križan (1826 – 1894), which comply with new requirements laid down on prose, namely to entertain, to attract and to educate the bourgeois audience as well as to address their national awareness. The works of prose mentioned above feature an idyllic topos characteristic of the 19th century Slovak literary discourse. It either has a form of a „lovely place“ in a remote forest settlement which keeps the world of civilization at a distance or a „happy home“ which stays in a close contact with it. Despite certain remnants of romantic poetics, which may be disclosed in representations of an idyllic topos, the writings present a rather Biedermeier-like attitude towards the reality: the ordinary is shown as a celebration or a ritual, they try to establish harmony between the idyllic place and the outer world, the community of a family or friends is depicted as a place that is a guarantee of moral values and national freedom.
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In the Slovak literature of National Revival, the authors writing in this period search for the historical, cultural, literary and linguistic roots of the Slovaks. The period of the Great Moravia is therefore reflected as a constituent period of Slovak history, Svätopluk being „the Slovak king“, Constantine and Methodius being the „Slovak apostles“, as can be seen mainly in the works written by Juraj Fándly (especially in his homily and in Compendiata historia gentis Slavae). During the period of National Revival, authors highlighted the national moment, but also the ethical dimension of history in identifying the exemplary characteristics and behavior of the Great Moravian personalities. The purpose of writing about the past is to influence the present, the actualizing dimension being manifested in a national and ethical interpretation of historical events.
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Hana Gregorová’s (1885 – 1958) early work was mostly concerned with themes pertaining to women’s emancipation. Later, the author widened her scope and also dealt with the questions of social justice. Feminist instrumentalisation as outlined in her debut collection of short prose Ženy ([Women] 1912) was combined with projecting a new, better world for all the impoverished ones. Social and pedagogical (didactic) function remained a stable characteristic of her writing. As to her themes, Gregorová was mainly concerned with the depiction of the suffering women and her empathising authorial narrator was a representative figure voicing progressive ideas. Works that the author published before 1918 (but also those from the first half of the 1920s) were later significantly revised. Gregorová updated her early work in accordance with the way her opinions evolved (especially with regards to her affinity towards socialist and communist ideas) and also as a reaction to the changes in social circumstances (the end of Second World War). Analysis of the revisions that the author made in the second publication of the collection Ženy (1946) had a direct impact on the poetics of the texts and in turn also influenced the literary-historical reception of the collection – a fact that is most visible in cases in which the scholars only worked with the second edition.
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