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Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2021
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tom 76
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nr 1
31 – 45
EN
The aim of the paper is to examine the criteria of realism applied to pictorial representations by Ernst Gombrich and Nelson Goodman. In the 2nd half of the 20th century, they both developed theories as to why some artefactual depictions seem more realistic to us than the others. In both approaches, there is a rejection of classical mimetic doctrine (there is a brief introduction to modern mimetic theory represented by Catherine Abell) as well as a criterion of visual illusion. What makes Gombrich and Goodman different is the assessment of informativeness criterion. While it is sufficient for Gombrich, Goodman goes even further in his relativization. Goodman also rejects informational content as the criterion of realism. The final criterion in Goodman's conception is based on the so-called inculcation. The paper examines the persuasiveness of Goodman’s and Gombrich’s arguments and mentions the current discussion (Mitrovic, Margolis, Briscoe) on them.
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Content available remote Prekvapujúca prítomnosť chýbajúcej definície v Gaudete et exsultate
100%
EN
The last papal document on holiness is the Apostolic Exhortation of Pope Francis Gaudete et exsultate (GeE) from 2018. Surprisingly, the Pope’s explicit statement in the introduction is that the document does not intend to define holiness. The reasons are in all probability related to the pastoral and encouraging character of the document. Despite the recommendations of the Pope, the author of this paper presents the hypothesis that the document nevertheless contains a certain defining strategy. It is not, however, a classic form of definition (essential or nominal) that contains the necessary and sufficient conditions. This interesting strategy is philosophically described by another approach, the theory of family resemblances of Ludwig Wittgenstein (from his Philosophical Investigations). Interestingly, the application of the non‑essential approach to the definition of holiness turns out to have potential. The author of this paper does not claim that Pope Francis intentionally uses Wittgenstein or the theory of family resemblances, but rather that reading GeE with this methodology is comprehensible and provides meaningful results.
ESPES
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2018
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tom 7
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nr 1
2 – 9
EN
Diverse and extended philosophical approaches to the art cover also the ontological questions. There are plenty authors who are doing their research to explore the question on the nature of the existence of works of art. What is challenging on the existence of works of art? Artworks are basically things, but necessarily artefact, products of human intentional activity. But from the other point of view, they are just objects, sometimes strange, sometimes old, but (physical) objects. Nobody denies particular function and value of artworks. Nevertheless, this function and value of artworks is hidden in very interesting way. Someone who is not familiar to the work could miss artistic meaning of the work at all. Therefore, we can argue there are not explicit artistic properties in art. On the other hand, physical configuration of the artwork-object offers magnificent and enormous source of meaning, pleasure and content. But there are no other properties then physical. So, philosophers of art should explain how artworks exist in contrary to the nature existence of others entities or artefacts. The text examines the hypothesis of the physical object and R. Wollheim's arguments against this hypothesis. He put the robust argumentation in his famous ‘Art and its objects’. But, the core of the article is the reconstruction of P. Lamarque's approach. Lamarque in his book ‘Art & Object’ distinguishes two elements: work and object. He considers this as a key to explain how works of art exist. The object is considered to be a medium, and work is entity depending on cultural and institutional contexts. Lamarque argues that art occurs where there is specific cultural and institutional background and understanding of objects as works of art. Pure existence of object (physically similar to artwork) does not guarantee existence of artworks. Surprisingly, identical entity could be and could not be artwork in the same time. The difference is in the presence of absence of appropriate cultural and institutional contexts.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2018
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tom 73
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nr 5
378 – 388
EN
In analytic aesthetics the discussion on the classification and evaluation of the term "art" was and still is alive. The article briefly introduces this tradition (analytic aesthetic framework), which has its roots in the reception of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations and includes authors such as Moris Weitz and Frank Sibley. The later reflection of the first themes and approaches, also called meta-aesthetics, is a parallel project to other disciplines of post-analytical philosophy, e.g. meta-ethics. Further, the study examines Joseph Kosuth´s conceptualism which serves as an example of the challenges faced by the philosophy of art in the 60s and 70s of the twentieth century. The particular aim of the study is a closer analysis of the dispute between classifying and evaluating of the term "art". Here the key part is played by the contribution of the Israeli philosopher Eddy Zemach. His approach is considered to be a functionalist solution to the problem of defining art. This solution implies the impossibility of neither temporal nor logical separation of classification and evaluation.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2017
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tom 72
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nr 3
162 – 172
EN
The paper deals with an attractive distinction between two kinds of Christian philosophy according to Winfried Löffler, who claims that: i) there are two basic (irreducible to each other) kinds of Christian philosophy, namely Augustinian and Thomistic; ii) Thomistic is more preferable, because it is immune to questionable blending philosophy and theology. The core of the study is the critique of Löffler’s argumentation: First, it disputes plausibility of the sharp distinction between the two kinds of Christian philosophy. Second, it criticizes the idea of neutral premises in philosophy. Third, it attacks the theory of “patching up the gaps” in our knowledge with theological premises.
EN
The paper introduces the work of B. F. Lonergan, a Canadian philosopher and theologian, who is almost unknown in Slovak philosophical context. The paper covers basic elements and sources, which are necessary for the research on Loneragan's work. Because the Lonergan's texts are new for our philosophical community, we are facing the problem of how to translate some of the key terms of his philosophy (e.g. insight). In its second part, the paper shows basic principles of the transcendental method in philosophy. There is a specific tradition that Lonergan is part of - transcendental Thomism (its representatives are among others Marechal, Muck, Coreth), which, accepting the classical principles of Thomistic philosophy, responses to Kantian philosophy. The analysis of success of the transcendental method in philosophy is valuable and helps us to understand the developments of modern philosophy.
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