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tom 9
nr 2
105 – 108
This short paper comments on Lukáš Makky’s article What Makes Things Banal. The argument is divided into two sections. The first section reconstructs Makky’s understanding of banality, which he develops based on aesthetic theories by Wolfgang Welsch and Walter Benjamin. The second and more critical section examines the validity of the arguments Makky uses for his definition of banality. Although this commentary attaches great value to Makky’s insightful analysis of the term banality and agrees with identifying it as a historical and processual concept, drawing on writings by M. Heidegger and J. Derrida it eventually proposes a different understanding of the relationship between the arts and banal things and underlines the importance of banality for the creation and perception of the arts.
The leading question of the article is whether repetition can safeguard what is particular from being subsumed under the universal. To this query, a related problem is appended, of whether an individual can be freed from the strictures of history, and whether history allows repetition occasionally failing to obliterate all that has already occurred. In other words repetition is presented as a space in which time, cultural dependencies and transcendence can be investigated. Three authors are discussed in this context. Freud finds repetition to be a disease symptom that is triggered by a failure to gratify instinct. Nietzsche emphasises the impossibility to construct an ego that is transparent to itself, and uses the idea of eternal returns to dispel the illusion of a holistic ego. Kierkegaard views repetition as a process that unifies particular experiences into a continuous whole that makes it possible to an individual to undertake a positive auto-creation.
The study is devoted to depicting recollection in a selected production Banalita lásky (The Banality of Love, Andrej Bagar Theatre, 2019). It broadens out the scope of interpretation by elucidating Søren Kierkegaard’s concept of repetition, which in his works is a key religious category of transcendence. Kierkegaard considered repetition as a temporal movement of existence and also an important tool of becoming human self in terms of freedom and personal identity. The main intention is to shed light on the difference between the concepts of recollection and repetition. The question at issue is whether or not Kierkegaard’s repetition is present according to the recollection of the past romance between the main characters Hannah Arendt and Martin Heidegger. The experience of recollection is different from repetition in relation to how an individual lives. The possibility of repetition rests with the subject and not with the caprices of external conditions. To conclude, it is suggested that Kierkegaard’s concept of repetition is highly relevant and present in Arendt’s character and her attitude to her past and present life with respect to its complexity. The author reflects on the distinction between recollection and repetition, which can provide a hermeneutic key to understanding the main theme of the selected production.
Most characteristics of language use are continually changing as time goes by. Studies describing linguistic change have so far largely ignored the area of speech planning processes and their observable consequences in spontaneous speech. In the present paper, disfluency phenomena were analyzed in two corpora recorded half a century apart. Present-day speakers' spontaneous speech is significantly more interspersed with disfluency phenomena (a total of 1754 occurrences in our data) than that recorded fifty years ago (568). Statistical analyses have revealed that hesitations, repetitions and error-type phenomena occur significantly more frequently with present-day speakers. In the earlier speakers' speech planning processes, the operation of lexical processes ran into more difficulty, whereas present-day speakers had more problems with finding the appropriate grammatical and phonological structure as well as with the monitoring of their transformations of thought into linguistic material. Underlying the differences observed in the occurrence of the various disfluency phenomena, an increasing amount of information that speakers now have to handle and their altered communicative needs can also be detected.
Slavia Orientalis
tom 56
nr 3
This article discusses the concept of boredom - an essential problem in philosophy, psychology and the history of literature - derived from the work of G. Flaubert, T. Mann and J. Brodsky. In the work of G. Flaubert (Madame Bovary), boredom is associated with aversion to the sensual dimension of life. The writer also establishes a close relationship between boredom, triviality and despair. T. Mann (Der Zauberberg) regards boredom as a pathological condition which, however, is a necessary stage in the individual development process leading to a fully independent personality. According to J. Brodsky, boredom is both a sickness of an existential nature and a specific state of sorrow embedded in the ontological order of the world, a state perceived from the perspective of infinite time.
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