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Content available Dynamika krajobrazu górskiego
A mountain landscape is characterized by a highest dynamics resulting from a diversified shaping, natural values, changeable conditions and individual characterological features of the observer. The phenomenon of space-time continuum and the velocity of the changes occurring while moving about in the area are of a great significance for the dynamics of the mountain landscape. These transformations of the mountain landscape find their reflection,and influence numerous forms of life and culture. For a long time it has been observed in art, especially in painting and literature, which shaped the conventional canons of beauty and the manners of environment perception. In the mountains they created fashion for particular threads or forms of folklore. The dynamics of the mountain landscape is influenced by existence of very strong aspects of the 'third dimension' i.e. drops expressing themselves in daring forms of shape. The dynamics is stressed by contemporary phenomena connected with more and more rapid transformations resulting from economic and social processes. Unfortunately, these changes are of decidedly destructive character and, by introducing for example contemporary, very aggressive dominants, often bring about irremediable loss in the natural elements and spectacular values of mountain landscapes.
Content available Infrastruktura narciarska w krajobrazie górskim
Any investment made in the mountains is in some way interference with their landscape, often with a loss for the scenic qualities. Recently escalate projects and realizations related with the ski infrastructure, also in areas particularly environmentally protected. They also tend to be a threat to other types of tourism by belittling of the "space tourist", they cause irreparable, or at least long-term losses for the landscape. Skiing has changed its character: from tourism and wander it came to the sport forms, even the playing field forms. Now dominates the model of different sizes and differently equipped so called ski stations, which consist of interrelated systems of lines and lifts, and connected with them ski runs and cross-country tracks. They occupy large tracts of the slopes, even to dorsal lots, require significant deforestation and consequently, instead of the beautiful natural panoramas it is observed artificially cut of the ski runs slopes. Mountains become the "wiring", and instead of trees the forest of supports and masts of the load-bearing, propulsion, lighting and snow making equipments grows on them. All these objects are part of a terrible landscape, and also hinder the other users to navigate in the mountains. Meanwhile, the natural climatic and snow conditions in the Polish mountains absolutely not support for such an intensive ski development, because the winter season takes them more than 3-4 months, while the devices reside in the landscape throughout the year. Laws should at least arise (like in other countries) that require owners of ski lifts removal or masking of them after the season.
Content available remote On the roof of Europe – the frolics of architects
The natural landscape provokes artists to revive one. Architects overcome technical, physiographic, and custom limitations and they picturesquely blend their works in with the richness of nature. Many benefits may accrue for the region and tourists from this bravura, but at the expense of losing some of the innate values. In this article, the problem is presented intentionally in an exaggerated manner, recalling extreme locations.
Krajobraz naturalny prowokuje artystów, aby go ożywić architekturą. Architekci pokonują ograniczenia techniczne, fizjograficzne, zwyczajowe mniej lub więcej malowniczo wkomponowując swoje dzieła w bogactwo form przyrody. Wiele korzyści wynika z tej brawury dla regionu, turystów, kosztem jednak utraty pewnych wartości pierwotnych. W artykule zaprezentowano ten problem w sposób celowo przejaskrawiony przywołując ekstremalne lokalizacje.
Architecture serving the tourist purpose consists of numerous objects of diverse functions, such as hotels, refuges, pensions, sanatoria, restaurants, congress halls, garages, camping sites, railway stations and many others. They greatly influence the landscape. In the report several groups of solutions have been presented, which interact with the mountain landscape. 1. Objects faithful to tradition of indigenous materials (stone and wooden buildings with simple forms, i.e. refuges and mountain doses). 2. Objects faithful to the traditions of regional ornamentation: wooden hotels and pensions, with long galleries, balconies, with characteristic wooden details and the construction specific for the region. 3. Hotels, holiday houses, recreational and skiing objects creating alpine agglomerations, destructively affecting the mountainous landscape. Modern ambitious accomplishments, consistent with high-tech directions, made of glass and steel - alpine meteorological stations, cable-railway stations with unconventional, interesting architecture.
Highlands are an area predisposed to the development of the holiday function, hence the essential problem: - whether the current figure of the holiday infrastructure enriches or lowers a value of the landscape villages of the Eastern Sudeten Mountains. Analyses are indicating the huge asymmetry between raised still in 70ties or 80ties, holiday objects, located in the space of the village of holiday houses and old, often neglected country building development. The number of weekend objects new, being characterized by a different form of the lump, or the attempt of the reactivation of wooden buildings, it causes of the gradual disappearance of the local form and the decline of the historically formed landscape of the village. A new formula is formed; the profile is still unclear however.
Landscape architecture in high mountains is a specific and extraordinary attractive field of scientific research. As well it is a very practical discipline, bringing much utility, because of a worldwide boom of highland tourism and sports. New mountain regions will be open for a mass users, who need buildings and facilities in order to survive, to be safe, and to be comfortable. Evolution of landscape architecture in high mountains has been stimulated by several completely different factors. One of them was just exploring - the basic kind of activity in high mountains - invented, organized and realized by elitist strong people - aristocrats and scientist. Then politics, had to move some interesting streams of development, because of military constructions, sometimes in a very wild, risky places. Finally culture, which is most important in the aspect of aesthetics, technical quality, and good function based on humanist requirements. Conquering landscape in high mountains - step by step, was first of all guided by the pioneers, heroic travellers, adventure men and ladies, showing how to do it. This patterns became more and more popular, next and next achievements were stronger and highly fascinating. So media took over, reporting and promoting high mountains as the greatest satisfaction, fun, way of relaxing, or a way to live. Finally architecture came with a help for people in an extreme landscape conditions. Its evolution - from simple pasture huts, through tourist/climbers shelters, until modern contemporary sophisticated high-tech stations looking somewhere as science-fiction creations, but often as the awful containers thrown into high mountain landscape. The future of landscape architecture in high mountains, is widely open. On one hand - it can be most sophisticated, fascinating creation of marvellous objects composed in a virginal nature. But on the other hand - it can easily be the bad and sad triumph of a primitive boxes production, spoiling the most exotic beauty spots. Landscape architects are necessary in order to avoid this last eventuality.
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