On the base of the data from the literature and our own research, different aspects of soil mulching in vegetable crop production in the open field are discussed. Organic soil covers such as straw, weeds or peat primarily used in the practice mainly to conserve the moisture were recently substituted by synthetic materials, mostly by 0.03-0.05 mm thick, clear' black or while polyethylene films. The advantageous effects of soil mulching are the improvement of plant's soil and air microclimate, and as a consequence of this the advancement of harvest date by 7 to 14 days as weil as substantial increase of crop yield. The edible product from mulched crop is clean, less subject to rotting and the soil is protected against wind and watererosion. The use of black or photoselective polyethylene plastic provide efficient weed control, while aluminium or silver coloured films may reduce aphids and other pest populations, resulting in lower pesticide requirement. Soil mulches can also minimize nitrogen leaching, permitting its more efficient use by vegetable crops, which are able to produce similar yields with lower fertilizer application. Soil mulching may be widely applied in tomato and cucumber production, especially in conjuction with drip irrigation. A positive response can be also obtained in the growth pepper, eggplant, squash, watermelon and sweet corn.