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EN
The Author of this article departs from the assumption that the current public debate is filled with varied social, cultural and communicative phenomena. The paper offers a preliminary description of the field comprising advice, tips, recommendations, indications and guidebooks. Moreover, it looks at the possibilities (strategies) of interdisciplinary description of therapeutic discourse as well as associated speech genres.
PL
Autorka artykułu zakłada, że współczesną przestrzeń debaty publicznej zasiedlają zróżnicowane zjawiska społeczne, kulturowe i komunikacyjne. Dokonuje ona wstępnej charakterystyki obszaru, w którego centrum mieszczą się rady, porady, zalecenia, wskazówki i poradniki. Zastanawia się także nad możliwościami (strategiami) interdyscyplinarnego opisu dyskursu terapeutycznego oraz wiązanych z nim gatunków mowy.
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The paper asks whether contrastive studies are conducted within the framework of French discourse analysis and attempts to find an answer to that question. First, the Author offers a brief overview of the origins of Polish textology and French discourse analysis, and explains the differences in how these two streams of linguistics approach comparative studies. While contrastive studies are not undertaken by French discourse analysts, recent years have seen attempts at comparing sociolinguistic behaviours using the criterion of occupation as well as cultural differences.
PL
Artykuł jest próbą znalezienia odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy w ramach francuskiej analizy dyskursu prowadzone są badania kontrastywne. Autorka przypomina w skrócie genezę polskiej tekstologii i francuskiej analizy dyskursu, tłumacząc różnice w podejściu obu lingwistyk do badań porównawczych. Francuscy dyskursywiści nie prowadzą badań kontrastywnych; można jednak w ostatnich latach zauważyć tendencje do porównywania zachowań społeczno-językowych w aspekcie wykonywanych zawodów oraz ze względu na różnice międzykulturowe.
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Content available Eufemismo na imprensa – estrutura e funcionamento
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EN
The aim of this article is to propose an analytical framework for the structure and euphemism’s concept in the press. Given the complexity of the euphemism structure, we restrict our focus to what we call the global vision of the phenomena. We present with theoretical instruments different points of view of the euphemism use which depends on the various public contexts. This pragmatic vision of using such instruments is reflected in the interlocutor’s relations. We are only able to analyze euphemisms when we realize the importance of its semantic dimension. Obviously, our approach to “press euphemisms” from a discourse analytic point of view is not independent of specific sociocultural accomplishment.
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Content available remote Europeanness Among Polish Civil Society Activists
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EN
The European discourse is not only a powerful idea at the structural societal level, it is also pragmatically used, re‑produced and transformed through the everyday actions of people with specific biographies.1 In this paper, I would like to address the question how Europeanness – i.e. relating to Europe and/or being European – develops during one’s life course. I propose a qualitative sociological approach and the methodology of discourse research2 and biographical analysis. 3 The empirical cases to be discussed are social actors who perceive themselves to be civil society activists. As such, they are actively involved in the public arena, thereby contributing to the development of public and media discourses. They talk about Europe from the perspective of specific biographies that have to be reconstructed if we are to understand the genesis of their Europeanness. In analysing the biographies of civil society activists in post‑socialist Poland, two ideal types could be reconstructed that apply to both the activity and the Europeanness: a) a pragmatic, skill and qualification‑related type and b) an idealistic, empowerment and emancipation‑related type. In order to discuss these two types, I shall first outline the methodology applied and the empirical material. I will then focus on the narratives, using the framework of biographical and discourse analysis in the sociology of knowledge tradition. My conclusion summarises the biographical development of Europeanness of Polish civil society activists.
EN
The discursive objectivity is directly related to a high frequency of nominalizations, agentless passive sentences and, on the other hand, to a low frequency of personal pronouns or deictic and temporal marks. Obviously, its role depends on the type of specialized language. The analysis of a functional and manually annotated corpus confirms that this discursive feature is the most important in scientific texts and its role decreases in journalistic and narrative ones. The statistical data automatically extracted from the electronically annotated corpora confirms the trend. However, while the numerical differences between English and Spanish seem to be natural, the same differences between Polish and Spanish, despite many structural similarities, suggest that the higher or lower frequency of objectivity marks might also be motivated by any communicative or syntactic reasons. A more detailed analysis is required.
EN
The article shows the fact that the concept of scientific discourse is interpreted as a complex phenomenon that consists of participants in communication, communication situations and the text itself. The conclusion is that discourse is an abstract invariant description of structural and semantic features that are realized in specific texts. Linguists interpret the concept of discourse as a complex communicative phenomenon that includes the speaker and the addressee of the message, the process of proper formation of speech, extralingual factors of communication, social and cultural background. This article presents a critical reading of the text “10 Best places to visit in Ukraine” and its overlook, research study in the field of online tourism promotion, published online in 2021 by one of the world’s largest tourism publishing houses, Touropia. The study aims at revising some of the characteristics of the ongoing tourism discourse through an analysis of the network of people and practices involved in these publications, their textual features and images. The article analyses the way in which various modes to create a virtual brochure with a promotional message from both institutional and commercial positions were combined. In doing this, it studies the organization of the website and its webpage, as well as the lexico-grammatical and visual features of its promotional messages. The analytical framework used includes critical discourse analysis and a corpus-based tool used to interpret different aspects of this tourism discourse. The places advertised as “Top 10” are presented to an all-aged audience that must be interested in discovering new places, appreciated to nature, fond of history and ready to consume national products. Polyparadigmatic nature has led to the active use of these terms in the field of literature, as a result of which scientific studies address issues of artistic concept, artistic discourse, which will always be open to researchers, while not exhausting its relevance.
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The article attempts to define the print advertorial in the perspective of the Polish theory of the genre and the French school of discourse analysis: to describe the genre signals that distinguish it from editorial content on the one hand and advertising content on the other, and to identify the relevant and idiosyncratic features of its prototypical core. It complements existing linguistic, media and press studies (Polish, European, American and Canadian), which – despite the dynamically growing importance of advertorial communication, becoming a dominant marketing tool in the magazine press – marginalise this phenomenon and do not devote much attention to it. The print advertorial is an advertising genre where messages are (as required by law) labelled, not listed, paginated or journalistically signed. They become genologically similar – to other press genres – and physically similar – to the editorial content around them – through the mechanisms of polymorphic mimesis. This strategy includes techniques of a greater or lesser degree of manipulation, such as nomenclature diversification, signature written in tiny print, low-visibility places and vertically, harmonisation of the topic and layout, genre adaptations as well as imitating the appearance of a typical newspaper article. A particularly interesting case is the mechanism of nomenclature diversification, which is completely overlooked in research. As it turns out, on the advertising market in Poland, there are 20 different signatures of the advertorial operating simultaneously, which – let me emphasise – are fully synonymous. These include terms such as: prezentacja partnera, promocja, materiał prasowy, materiał przygotowany przez + [brand name] (e.g., Material prepared by Optegra) or [brand name] + in + [magazine name] (e.g., Davines in Wysokie Obcasy Extra). Per analogiam, advertorials in French are covered by 12 different signatures (including publi-communiqué, publi-information, publi-story, publi-reportage, publi-évasion) and in English by three names (advertorial, special advertising section, promotion). The author presents the advertorial in its proper socio-cultural and historical context and carries out semiotic and discursive analyses of numerous examples from Polish, French and English magazine press from the years 2000–2021. That allows her to propose a broad definition of the print advertorial in question and, at the same time, to illustrate its complex, polymorphic nature.
EN
The aim of the article is to present a discourse analysis of the knowledge–based work description and HRM as developed by managers from the knowledge–intensive business services sector (KIBS). The transcriptions of qualitative interviews—individual in–depth interviews (IDI)—and a focus group interview (FGI) were used to achieve this goal. The performed discourse analysis is a subjective exemplification of knowledge–based work in companies where unique/innovative solutions for customers are created. The specificity of such work is described by the following attributes: high demand for creativity and complexity, cognitive overload, changeable work pace, mobility, application of numerous IT tools, a diversified pattern of requirements and resources, and the input of individuals into the final solution that is difficult to estimate.
PL
Celem artykułu jest prezentacja analizy dyskursu w odniesieniu do pracy opartej na wiedzy i ZZL tworzonej przez menedżerów z sektora KIBS (knowledge–intensive business services sector). Aby osiągnąć ten cel, wykorzystano transkrypcje wywiadów jakościowych (indywidualny wywiad pogłębiony IDI i zogniskowany wywiad grupowy. Przeprowadzona analiza dyskursu stanowi subiektywną egzemplifikację pracy opartej na wiedzy w firmach, gdzie tworzone są unikatowe/innowacyjne rozwiązania dla klientów. Jej specyfike opisują następujące atrybuty: wysoki wymóg kreatywności i złożoność, przeciążenia kognitywne, zmienne tempo pracy, mobilność, korzystanie z dużej ilości narzędzi IT, zróżnicowany wzór wymagań i zasobów oraz trudny do oceny wkład poszczególnych osób w ostateczne rozwiązanie.
EN
This article focuses on the narratives and underlying ideologies that enable the persistence of girls’ sexual exploitation in the region of the Triple Border among Argentina, Brasil and Paraguay, where field work was conducted. We argue that the persistence of colonial practices has contributed to the reproduction of subalternity positions for girls and women – especially from impoverished sectors – enforced by the conservative and patriarchal discourse present in many countries of the region. This scenario enables the persistence and naturalization of certain practices that became “invisible” or even accepted and justified as being “cultural”. In this sense, we propose that human rights narrative, although being a Eurocentric construction, can comprise a platform for raising issues on gender inequality and all forms of violence and exploitation taking place in the peripheral regions of the world.
EN
This article deals with formulas of Russian chronicle texts and their functions. According to the article, a chronicle is a specific type of Old Russian texts representing the synthetic genre and style. It is proven that speech formulas used in chronicles influenced the formation of the stylistic system of the Russian language. The formulas take both the stylistic function, marking certain parts of the text, and the semantic function, esta-blishing a semantic link between chronicle and precedent texts.
EN
This paper deals with the social meaning of Russia in the French Press Discourse. The particular aim is to examine the nature and the role of negation, which seems to be one of the mechanisms that have a considerable impact on the construction of the meaning of the Proper Name. We discuss, on the one hand, the role of negation that affects the reformulations of la Russie within attributive structures and, on the other hand, the negation in the conditional propositions of structure si A, B (if A, B). Corpus material is taken from the French national daily press and published in March 2014, at the time of the annexation of Crimea.
EN
The author of the article analyses the last two programmes (from 2009 and 2010) entitled „A Conversation With Vladimir Putin. Continuation” paying attention to the way Putin constructs his public utterances. The analysis includes eight images of Putin: Putin-moralist, Putin-authority, Putin – risk-taker, fair Putin, Putin-„our man”, Putin-workaholic, all-knowing Putin, Putin-reformer. The analysis shows that these kinds of meetings between the Prime Minister and the nation follow a well-developed pattern. Apparently, the language is an instrument of power with which politicians create their own images and reality, and using appropriate methods of social engineering impose their model on people.
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Content available Rhetorical strategies on www.iReport.com
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PL
The study concentrates on the phenomenon of user-generated content on the internet. The article presents an introductory analysis of various rhetorical strategies used by the authors of commentaries on one of the popular user-contributory sites, i.e. www.iReport.com. The analysis of this site shows that there exists a range of diverse means of expression used by the enthusiasts of broadcasting online, involving the submission of written articles, live video commentaries, audio files and cartoons. The study shows that users shape the features of the content in different manners and resort to the use of a variety of rhetorical devices. To the main properties of discourse belong personalization, interactivity, use of figurative and vivid language.
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Up to so-called "migration crisis" a figure of immigrant-foreign comparatively rarely appeared in Polish press discourse. From 2015 the immigration problem became one of the most frequently raised issues in public debates. The discourse was polarized strongly, which was an indicator of the increasing political divisions. The aim of the article is to show how immigrants were represented in the most influential Polish press releases, how the rhetoric of fear was created, what argumentative strategies were applied in order to escalate the fear. Qualitative and quantitative research methods have been applied to the analysis of news articles and analytical tools offered by Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA).
EN
This paper deals with the representation of ethnic minorities in the media, focusing mainly on the role of the journalist. It approaches news stories through the prism of the media construction of reality and the cultural concept of representation. Using critical discourse analysis, the study describes the nature of the social reality constructed by the TV news series “Where Others Fear to Tread.” The paper reflects the general attributes of the representation of the Roma minority in the news, pointing out methods and signs used for emphasizing the stereotypes shared by the majority. The analysis shows that the media discourse of news stories could potentially confirm prejudices towards the Roma minority, forming the image of Roma people as essentially maladjusted, dangerous and suspicious individuals.
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tom 57
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94-118
EN
The aim of this article is to analyze the manner in which the chosen Polish weekly news magazines – Newsweek, Polityka and Wprost – presented Africa in the years 2001–2010, mainly the problems of its current situation and prospects for the future, as well as the issue of the most prominent leaders of the continent. Using two research methods – content analysis and discourse analysis – the author establishes that none of the magazines published articles about Africa in a systematic planned manner. The magazines focused mainly on political and security issues. Economy, societies and religions were also on the agenda but to a lesser extent. The problems of the continent were often presented through the activities taken by the dictators – Muammar Gaddafi and Robert Mugabe. As far as the perspectives of Africa for the future are concerned, the most critical and pessimistic was Wprost, whereas Newsweek and Polityka took a more optimistic approach to the issue.
EN
The article is an overview of the achievements of Polish stylistics and text studies in public discourse studies. In part one the author examines transformations of linguistic schools related to the evolution of discourse schools (from discourse analysis to critical discourse analysis), which occurred as a result of the borrowing of research concepts of the humanities and social sciences devoted to the analysis of language in social, media and political communication, as well as the impact of linguistics on the evolution of discourse analysis in these disciplines (e.g. sociology). In part two the author provides a synthesis of studies concerning Polish public discourse as well as an outline of the research field and a synthesis of research terminology.
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Content available remote TRADUIRE LA METAPHORE DANS LE DISCOURS QUOTIDIEN
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EN
This article proposes an analysis of metaphor as a mark of the daily discourse. It comprises three sections: the first represents a general presentation of the topic, the second focuses on the problem of literal and figurative meaning in translation, and the last part is dedicated to the metaphoric slang. The central premise of our work is the fact that metaphor is built according to the principle of the individual or collective imaginary, representing one of the manifestations of human experience. The figurative sense has a major role in deciding on the method that will be used for the translation of the metaphor. Also, slang is a sample of daily discourse, and its metaphorical implicatures may constitute a translation problem. The methods applied, contrastive analysis and case study, helped us emphasize the paradoxical features of metaphor in translation.
EN
Th is article analyzes political narratives of the discourse on the future use of nuclear energy in Hungary. In light of the January 2014 parliamentary decision to expand Hungarian nuclear energy production capacity with Russian technology and fi nancing, the article examines parliamentary addresses of the period 2010–2013 to identify and interpret characteristics and changes in nuclear narratives of parliamentary parties and the government. Th e content analysis includes identifi cation of framing, characteristics of choice of language, realization of risk and of benefi t oriented speaking patterns, and the assessment of power relations between the political actors. Th e article argues that the nuclear communication strategies of political parties show distinct approaches: full f ront approach to include nuclear aspects of all possible issues, avoidance that attempts not taking sides in this issue, and re-direction that, within the nuclear framing, places a focus on other aspects with the purpose to re-defi ne the dominant framing and to rule the discourse. Risk awareness patterns range from comprehensive to occasional, selective and latent risk perception structures. Th e Risk Perception Index, comprehending levels of risk and benefi t perception, can serve as a model to measure, in numeric terms, the support or critique of the nuclear agenda.
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Content available remote Between Stylistics and Discourse Analysis
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The research deals with the relationship of linguistic stylistics and discourse analysis and indicates the possibilities of the connectedness and mutual enrichment of both disciplines. The subject of analysis is a text which we understand as a joint startingpoint object of analyses and, at the same time, also as a mean testifying the affinity of both disciplines. We relate the stylistic understanding of the notion of text as a linguistic-thematic structure with a more recent definition of the term discourse within which in the foreground is the social aspect of language and the text functions as a constituent by means of which we penetrate into the purport of the functioning of humans in social interactions with regard to the extra-linguistic factors participating in the social event. On the basis of topical publicistic texts we illustrate the application of the stylistic and discourse-analytical tools within observing the phenomenon of intertextuality (or interdiscoursivity) entailing the mixing of the means of expression, the crossing of the content-and-composition-related strategies in connection with the hybridization of the value identity of the text (the sophisticated with ordinary, the serious with tabloid) and of the genre models with regard to the meaning of these procedures in grasping the reality.
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