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1
Content available remote Za etiku korektní
100%
EN
This piece is a reaction to an article by Dr. Hříbek „Towards Ethics without Theology“. The first part points to certain doubtful arguments and logical inadequacies behind some of Hříbek’s theses. The second part focuses on Hříbek’s key argument in support of euthanasia. An attempt is made to uncover the real logical structure of this argument and to show not only that the conclusion which Hříbek arrives at does not follow from its premisses, but that while preserving the same assumptions one may arrive at precisely the opposite conclusion. The aim of the discussion is to emphasise the necessity of proper and logically correct argumentation in specialist analysis of ethical themes and also to point to the fact that if we wish to find a firm rational basis for ethical disputes we must carefully and consistently consider our initial concepts and theses to ensure that they are generally acceptable.
2
Content available Professional ethics
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EN
It should be noted first of all, that professional ethics is a certain particularisation of general ethics. This particularisation does not mean, however, that in comparison with the general ethics, it addresses minor issues dealing with fragments of reality, or the problems faced by only a certain group of people engaged in particular profession. Problems of professional ethics are basically the same problems which general ethics is trying to solve, the same in the sense that there is no difference between general values and the values realized by exercising a profession or difference between moral virtues in general and the virtues which appear to be particularly important for those practicing a specific profession. Truth, for example, is a moral value, irrespective of whether it is the truth within the understanding of a journalist, teacher or doctor, as well as truthfulness is a virtue, regardless of whether it is a truthful journalist, doctor, etc. This also means that any decisions made within professional ethics are also valid for all members of the community. Recognizing for example that one of the basic moral standards of medical ethics is the duty of concern for the patient, we recognize at the same time, that this injunction applies in all situations in which one man’s welfare depends on the behaviour of another. The primary objective of professional ethics is not, therefore, to determine moral standards for situations that happen only sporadically in everyday life of the most people, and which therefore would apply primarily within the relevant professional groups.
3
Content available Sentido e valor da Criónica: da ética à bioética
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EN
We are looking forhard to doing a good exercice about the sense and value of crionic according to the ethi9cal and bioethical foundations. Meanwile, this is new philosophical formulation for the questions from science to ethical formulations.
EN
The author discusses the issue of ethics in journalism on the Internet. He also focuses on the background of different genres of journalism.
5
Content available remote Review: "Elementy etyki lekarskiej," by Tadeusz Biesaga
63%
Forum Philosophicum
|
2007
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tom 12
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nr 1
204-206
EN
The article reviews the book Elementy etyki lekarskiej [Issues in Physician Ethics], by Tadeusz Biesaga.
6
Content available Definícia etiky
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EN
The definition of ethics reveals a number of problems associated with determining the identity of ethics and demarcation separating it from other disciplines. Choosing definition There is essential question: each definition introduces some new concepts that are most often prove to be far less clear than the defined concepts and leading to the said difficulties.
7
Content available Economic and entrepreneurial ethic
63%
EN
It is often assumed in business ethics publications that a business activity is a kind of a profession, and that is why business ethics is treated as the professional ethics. However, such an approach does not seem well-founded because the notion of business does not mean only one, possible to define precisely, kind of activity. One could admittedly recognize that business ethics is the ethics of a businessman; that is, a person being the owner of the enterprise and managing it. However, presenting the issue in such a way, would exclude the activity of these enterprises which do not have a sole proprietor(e.g. state-owned enterprises and joint-stock companies) from the competence of business ethics.
8
Content available Reflections on sexual ethics
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EN
Ethics of sexuality is an exceptional field within the realm of ethics, due to its close connection with extra-ethical concepts, mainly religious ones. This fact differentiates sexual ethics from other ethical disciplines, such as ethics of business or eco-ethics. This is because, however one can talk about Christian or non-Christian (e.g. utilitarian) concepts within those ethics, there is no way one could talk about utilitarian ethics of sexuality: such ethics as a separate discipline simply do not exist. In my article I would like to formulate and justify values and principles relating to sexual relations. In order to do so, one has on one hand to consider the values formulated by Christian ethics, as well as the principles built on them – and, on the other hand, to look at arguments for including the sphere of sexuality within “lay” ethical reflexion. In my considerations as main research problem I pose the thesis: should sexual drive and the behaviours immediately resulting therefrom undergo ethical evaluation, or as a private sphere, they should remain outside the scope of interest of ethics.
9
Content available remote Je vůbec ještě možná etika v „postetickém“ světě?
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EN
In contemporary Holland the reasons given for requests for euthanasia, surprisingly, do not usually include the existence of unbearable physical pain. The most common reasons for such requests are a weariness of life, the feeling of loneliness, a fear of the loss of dignity, but above all a general inability to see in suffering any kind of sense. The problem of euthanasia thus clearly transcends the boundary of the doctor-patient relation, and marks a change in the climate of European society as a whole. While in an earlier religious context the life of a person was understood as meaningful journey from somewhere to somewhere else, in the Darwinian paradigm a person becomes a “piece of matter“ which has evolved amongst other such pieces of matter, and which lives out its time in the middle of a universe in which there is no sense, no God, and where one can scarcely discover any meaning behind suffering. Requests for euthanasia are, therefore, not the individual choice of particular people, but rather a disturbing symptom of the whole of European society.
10
Content available Globalizacja w kontekście aspektów etycznych
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EN
As defined globalization movement of goods, capital, the movement of people and ideas across the world. The economic dimension of globalization is based on the disappearance of barriers to trade between countries. That disappearance of barriers is a growing process which comprises more areas of the globe, although it should be emphasized that a variety of reasons, some areas of the world remain excluded from it. Globalization is not a new phenomenon, because in the history of the world, people have always traded with each other, traveling and got to know each other. Moreover, in the history of mankind, there are periods in which the processes taking place already similar in some respects to contemporary globalization. Show here can rise to the Roman Empire, the colonization of the New World and the creation of the United States and other countries postcolonial. Today, due to advances in technology, these processes occur much faster and on a larger scale, including, as the name suggests, the entire globe.
11
Content available Etyczne aspekty kredytu
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EN
A financial crisis of 2008 showed a global meaning of ethical dimension of the credit institution because lack of financial subjects’ responsibility is regarded as one of the causes of the world breakdown. The author attempts to reconstruct the role of credit in the society and economy, especially an evolution of its ethical aspects is analysed. It is aimed to catch and understand the phenomenon of responsibility for the effects of this institution activity which proved dramatic more and more often both for individuals and for the whole society.
12
63%
EN
The social market economy respects economic and social values as well as ethics. However, the ethical dimension of the economic transformation has been neglected in Poland. That is just why positive consequences of the economic transformation have been reduced.
13
Content available Pożyczka na procent. Próba oceny etycznej
63%
EN
From the very beginning of Christianity personal experience with the problem loans on per cent. Statements of the individual Popes and councils and synods responding to the intensifying periodically problem are attesting to it. It should be noted that the evaluations are different from each other. Currently this issue is firmly present in social life in connection with the global economic crisis. And so an attempt to determine limits of the fair loan for the per cent appears to be important.
EN
The fundamental rules which should be followed by Notary Public are: honesty, reliability, detachment and impartiality, as well as keeping the professional secret. As a crucial participant in creating and carrying into effect legal structures of free market, Notary Public performs public functions. Therefore, he or she is authorized to give an official character to declarations of persons being their clients. In view of the foregoing, the notary should secure such documents in trading abiding by the rules and regulations of the governing law and ethics. With a view to a special role of the profession in question in economic trade, The National Notary Board passed a Notary Public Code of Professional Ethics, by virtue whereof a Notary shall with their attitude and actions give a good character to their profession and mind its dignity and honor. Any breach of the above – mentioned rules results in the Notary’s liability. Notary Public, as a person whose functions play a crucial role in legal trade and who is trusted by the parties, is responsible for correctness and precision of their activities. Their liability as clients’ confidant may result in civil, legal, disciplinary and tax liability.
16
Content available Etyka w społecznej gospodarce rynkowej
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EN
Respecting the rights of man, the social market economy is aimed at maintaining a high rate of economic growth, price stability, full employment, healthy competition, good working conditions and public services. That is just why the social market economy is not far removed from the objective demands of the moral order, from the exigencies of justice and social love.
17
Content available Po prostu rozsądek, czyli etyka dziennikarska
63%
EN
The paper describes ethical issues involved in the work of a TV journalist. The author – an experienced editor and producer of TV programs – diagnoses the condition of today’s media and describes concrete cases in which ethical standards were violated. The examples that he describes – like journalists leading political meetings or unreliable commenting on the controversial actions of national and local politicians – arise in his opinion as the result of the “egoistic and consumerist mentality of young journalists” rather than a lack of education.
EN
It is particularly important for media to respect certain ethical norms related to politics due to the fact that they are for the vast majority of their own customers the only source of political information. In as much as media recipients are able to get to know many areas of their reality in a direct way so as to confront any media coverage with their own viewpoint, the politics as such does not allow for such an opportunity. The recipients cannot therefore act according to the principle (which admittedly belongs more to the field of rationality than morality) requiring them to favour only direct contact with their reality when it comes to particularly significant matters1, with political decisions belonging to such a scope of issues. It also appears that the recipients are obliged to formulate clear expectations towards media, so that they provide, if possible, a comprehensive and impartial set of information and opinions on matters of the politics. This approach can be effective due to the functioning of certain media mechanisms requiring to adapt the content to the tastes and expectations of the widest possible audiences.
19
Content available remote Ethics and Uncertainty: The Guest Editor’s Introduction
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EN
The Guest Editor’s Introduction
20
63%
EN
The article reviews the book Die Möglichkeit des Guten. Ethik im 21. Jahrhundert [The Possibility of the Good. Ethics in the 21st Century], by Wilhelm Vossenkuhl.
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