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Content available remote Somatic Build of Rowers in the Period from 1995 to 2005
Human Movement
tom 12
nr 1
Purpose. The aim of the paper is an attempt to show the sizes of morphological features of rowers, in order to establish the type of body build proper for present requirements of this sports discipline through the determination of morphological features of the greatest importance in rowing including the type of a racing boat. Basic procedures. Analysed material includes competitors practising rowing, who were members of the Polish junior national team in this sports discipline in the period from 1995 to 2005. A group of 31 anthropometric measurements have been analysed; body composition has been measured by the BIA method, including rowing boat categories. Musculature rate for each participant was calculated on the basis of chosen somatic indicators. Collected material has been elaborated with basic statistical methods. Main findings. Rowers are characterized by the significant height of the body, large body mass and a considerably slender figure at the same time. Characteristic features are: trunk with its large length and large circumferences, long upper and lower limbs, shoulders of medium broadness, narrow pelvis, flat chest. Big musculature of upper and lower limbs which classify competitors to the group of thigh-set limbed and the considerable stoutness of the body, expressed with the thickness of skin-adipose folds, with the proportional fat content, are also characteristic features. Analysed teams show the differentiation depending on types of racing boats, with achieving larger mean features by the crew of oars, at the greater proportional participation of the fat in the general body mass. Conclusion. Competitors doing rowing at the high level of sports advancement must accomplish the criteria of morphological build, and the level of these requirements is adapted to the specificity of this sports discipline and types of racing boats.
Body build and proportions are key determinants of athletic success. The effects of the athlete selection process and discipline-specific training are differentiated body dimensions. The aim of the study was to examine the physical characteristics of female combat athletes. The results of anthropometric measurements of 154 females aged 21.2±1.79 years competing in judo, jiu-jitsu, karate, taekwondo, and fencing for 7.5±3.43 years. Significant differences were observed between the judo and karate, taekwondo and fencing practitioners in chest, hip, arm and forearm girths. More variance was observed in body proportions. Fencers had the slimmest body shape, a more massive body size in the judokas. Longer upper extremities relative to lower extremity length were found in the jiu-jitsu group. Relative to body height, a larger torso and greater girths were observed in the judokas compared with the fencing, karate, and taekwondo practitioners. The groups did not differ in the level of endomorphy. Mesomorphy was highest in judokas and the lowest in fencers, although ectomorphy was most dominant in the latter group. Females practitioners of combat sports exhibit differences in physical characteristics as an effect of optimizing body type and build via the training and athlete selection process of a given discipline. The anthropometric measures could play a role in talent identification programmes for martial arts and help the trainers to optimize the motoric effectiveness of athletes.
Purpose. The aim of the present study was to assess the morpho-functional characteristics of male jiu-jitsu practitioners against a sample of strength-trained university students. Methods. The all-male research sample included 49 jiu-jitsu competitors and 30 university students actively involved in strength training. Measures of body mass and height, lower extremity length, sitting height, arm span, trunk width, skeletal breadths, circumferences and skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities were collected. Body tissue composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Somatotype was classified according to the anthropometric method of Heath and Carter. Participants also performed three motor tests composed of the standing long jump, flexed arm hang, and sit-ups and two dynamometer tests measuring handgrip and back muscle strength. Differences between the measured characteristics in both samples were analyzed using Student’s t test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to the determine the relationships between the morphological characteristics and the results of the motor tests. Results. The jiu-jitsu sample was slightly smaller than the strength-training students. In contrast, body mass was almost identical in both groups. The remaining length, height, and skinfold characteristics also did not differ significantly between the groups. Only hip breadth was significantly larger in the jiu-jitsu sample. No between-group differences were noted in the levels of endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. The composite somatotype of the jiu-jitsu athletes (2.1-5.8-2.0) was very similar to that of the strength-trained students (2.1-5.9-2.4). Statistically significant differences were observed in the tests assessing muscle strength. Handgrip and back muscle strength was greater in the strength-training students, whereas the jiu-jitsu athletes performed better in all three motor tests. Conclusions. The minor morphological differences between the jiu-jitsu and strength-training groups may be due to the different sporting level of the participants. Whereas the intense weight training regime of the strength-training students allowed them to achieve higher results in the dynamometer tests, the more multidimensional aspect of jiu-jitsu training was reflected in achieving better results in the motor tests.
The aim of the paper was to evaluate the digit ratio between groups of sporting and non-sporting women and men, and attempt to determine a value typical for athletes of each gender. Additional-ly, the aim was to evaluate relations of the digit ratio with both the somatic structure and motor fitness, which could then be used to improve on sports selection criteria. The research material comprised 22 anthropometric measurements together with results of four motor fitness tests of students active in various sports disciplines. The control group comprised students who had never practiced sport. The sporting students showed significantly lower digit ratios compared to the control group of non-sporting students. Correlations between the digit ratio and features of the body structure were low. Both sexes recorded significant nega-tive correlations between the digit ratio and handgrip strength, as well as with the long jump length. Those with a lower value of the digit ratio had better predispositions to practicing sports.
Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and technical constructs of futsal set the game apart from other indoor soccer games, finding that futsal players share a number of morphological similarities with handball players.
Purpose. The present study attempted to determine the effect of the number of hours spent playing computer games per week on somatic characteristics and the performance of selected coordination motor abilities. Methods. Ninety-seven prepubertal boys from rural areas of southern Poland were recruited. Selected coordination motor abilities were assessed by use of computer tests and a questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of time spent playing computer games. Basic somatic characteristics such as body height, body mass, body fat percentage (%PF), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Descriptive statistics were calculated mean and standard deviation ( , sd) for the studied coordination abilities and somatic characteristics. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was employed to determine the differentiation between the results of the studied variables depending on the mean numbers of hours spent playing computer games per week. Results. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the results and the number of hours spent playing games, specifically for kinesthetic differentiation, spatial orientation, and the speed, accuracy, and precision of movements (in the number of committed errors). The lowest somatic characteristics including BMI was observed in the group of boys who spent the least amount of time playing computer games. Conclusions. It was found playing computer games 8 to 11 hours a week positively affected coordination motor ability, although individuals who played more than this amount of computer games had a higher incidence to be overweight or obese.
Background The aim of this study was to estimate the bone mass (BM)and bone mineral density (BMD) of the non-dominate forearm and compare these measurements to basic features of somatic structure and habitual physical activity (PA) levels in adult men. Material and methods The study examined 160 men aged 20 to 50, randomly sampled from Warsaw, Poland. Bone mineral density and BM of the forearm was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric measurements included: height, body mass, and the width of the elbow and wrist of the non-dominant limb. Habitual PA was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results The men with sufficient to high levels of PA demonstrated normal values for the T-score in the both the distal and proximal forearm measurement sites in more than 90% of participants and more than 50% in the those with sufficient level of PA. In the group with insufficient levels of PA, low values of the T - score indicating osteopenia was found in both the proximal and distal measurement sites, 71% and 80% respectively. Significant, though weak positive correlations were found between BMD, an indicator of T – score, and a both elbow and wrist widths. Conclusions Lack of PA is clearly associated with an increased occurrence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in men. This study supports the notion that osteopenia and osteoporosis is present in younger adult men and that sufficient habitual PA is a important factor to preserve bone health.
Introduction. Body build and the ability to maintain balance play an important role in the development and improvement of specialised motor habits and complex technical elements necessary to achieve significant sporting results in rhythmic gymnastics. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the level of ability to maintain dynamic balance and in the construction of somatic young female rhythmic gymnasts during a period of two year training. Material and methods. The research material consisted of 13 girls. When the first measurements were taken gymnasts were aged 7 - 12 years. In the study we utilised posturography and the Heath-Carter Anthropometric Somatotype Method. The analysis of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences (p <0.05) in the values of the dynamic balance indicators of the gymnasts' bodies in all three consecutive measurements over a course of years. Results and conclusions. It was noted that as the young gymnasts progressed in their training, their ability to maintain dynamic balanced increased. Based on the characteristics of the model, we developed an exemplary set of dynamic balance of rhythmic gymnasts. The somatotype of the tested athletes surveyed had been changing in the direction of increase in the proportion of components of endomorphy and mesomorphy. The balance ability of rhythmic gymnasts stabilised during their puberty associated with changes in body proportions ratio i.e.: height, weight and somatotype. The results and conclusions drawn can be an important part of selection and choice and can be used to control the dynamic balance in rhythmic gymnastics.
Content available Zmiany inwolucyjne narządu ruchu a ryzyko złamań
W badaniach nad urazami kości i stawów analizuje się najistotniejsze czynniki ryzyka upadków i złamań. Efektem procesów inwolucyjnych może być utrata stabilności postawy ciała człowieka, obniżona siła mięśniowa, zmniejszony zakres ruchomości stawów oraz obniżona gęstość tkanki kostnej z pogorszeniem jej wytrzymałości. Zmiany te wyraźnie ograniczają możliwości ruchowe i lokomocyjne osób starszych. Celem niniejszej pracy była analiza wybranych czynników ryzyka złamań i częstotliwości ich występowania u dorosłych i starszych kobiet. Przebadano 193 kobiety, które podzielono na 3 grupy wiekowe: osoby 50-letnie (N = 46, średnia wieku 55,6 ± 3,1), 60-letnie (N = 90, średnia wieku 64,8 ± 2,9) oraz 70-letnie (N = 57, średnia wieku 74,9 ± 3,2). Wykonano podstawowe pomiary somatyczne, badania densytometryczne za pomocą aparatu EXA-3000 firmy Mar-Med, pomiary siły mięśniowej z wykorzystaniem wielofunkcyjnego fotela rehabilitacyjno-diagnostycznego do analizy momentów sił mięśni stawu kolanowego w warunkach pracy izometrycznej oraz przeprowadzono badanie stabilności postawy ciała z wykorzystaniem platformy dynamograficznej ACCU GAIT firmy Technomex. W badaniach obserwowano charakterystyczne dla wieku zmiany cech somatycznych, czyli obniżanie wysokości ciała i zwiększanie względnej masy ciała (BMI - Body Mass Index). Wyniki badań wykazały spadek gęstości tkanki kostnej wraz z wiekiem (BMD - Body Mass Density) oraz zmniejszenie momentów siły mięśnia czworogłowego i zginaczy stawu kolanowego. Parametry równowagi (pole powierzchni stabilogramu oraz długość całkowita stabilogramu) były większe w kolejnych grupach wiekowych. Przeprowadzona analiza wykazała istotne związki między wiekiem a badanymi parametrami. W badaniach ankietowych z ostatnich 3 lat wykazano wzrastającą częstość złamań w tych grupach kobiet, odpowiednio 20, 28 i 35%. Wyniki badań potwierdzają, że ryzyko złamania rośnie nie tylko wraz z wiekiem, ze zmniejszaniem się masy kostnej, lecz także w następstwie fizjologicznych zmian pozaszkieletowych dotyczących układu nerwowo-mięśniowego.
In the examinations of bones and joints injuries in elderly people the main reasons of the risk of collapse and fractures, including involution processes, are analysed. The body involution processes may lead to the loss of the stability of the body, lower muscular power and mobility of joints, lower density of bones tissue. The aim of the current work is the analysis of some aspects of fractures risk and their frequency in adult and elderly women. In the study 193 women were examined. They were divided into three groups according to the age: 1st group consisted women aged 50 (N = 46, mean of age - 55,6 ± 3,1), 2nd group - women aged 60 (N = 90, mean of age - 64,8 ± 2,9), 3rd group - women aged 70 (N = 57, mean of age - 74,9 ± 3,2). Basic somatic traits (body height and weight), densitometry using EXA-3000 apparatus, isometric muscular force of knee joint using multifunctional rehabilitation-diagnostic armchair and body balance using ACCU GAIT platform, were measured. Characteristic changes in somatic features like decrease in the body height and increase of BMI, were observed. Decrease of bone mass density, as well as the muscles power of flexion and extension in knee joints, was demonstrated. The vertical stability parameters (area and path length of the stabilogram) increase with the age. There is a correlation between above mentioned parameters and the person age. The questionnaire analysis revealed the fractures tendency in the three groups of women, respectively of 20, 28 and 35%. The performed examination proved that the risk of fractures is positively correlated not only with the age and the decrease of bone mass, but also with the physiological changes in the neuro-muscular system.
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