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Lake Wigry is one of the best explored lakes in Poland, a feat which has been achieved thanks to the passion and efforts of numerous scientists. This tremendous endeavour was supervised and coordinated by Professor Jacek Rutkowski and January 2021 marked the fifth anniversary of the professor’s death. To mark this occasion, a history of research on the lake was compiled on the basis of oral accounts and an overview of the works that have been created thanks to his ideas, supervision, and boundless empathy. It is crucial to continue the research, since it will allow for the even better protection of the environment, as well as the natural and landscape attributes of the Wigry region.
The quality of the aquatic environment of high Andean lagoons was evaluated by means of multivariate statistical methods in two contrasting climatic periods. The water samples and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected in 22 sampling sites during the rainy and dry seasons. In each lagoon DO, DTS, EC, temperature and pH were determined in situ. The results revealed that the physicochemical parameters comply with the environmental quality standards for water, except COD and BOD5. In the PCA of the physicochemical parameters, the first two axes explained 73% of the total variation. The gradual analysis in pairs showed significant differences. The SIMPER analysis determined an average of four families of benthic macroinvertebrates per lagoon that showed more than 70% contribution. The ANOSIM revealed that Tragadero lagoon differs significantly from the others. The DistLM showed a value of 0.46 of coefficient of determination. Therefore, the quality of the environment of high Andean lagoons evaluated by means of multivariate statistical methods presents important differences or dissimilarities not only in the physicochemical characteristics of the water, but also in the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities.
Content available remote Kinematic Adaptations of Forward and Backward Walking on Land and in Water
The aim of this study was to compare sagittal plane lower limb kinematics during walking on land and submerged to the hip in water. Eight healthy adults (age 22.1 ± 1.1 years, body height 174.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass 63.4 ± 6.2 kg) were asked to cover a distance of 10 m at comfortable speed with controlled step frequency, walking forward or backward. Sagittal plane lower limb kinematics were obtained from three dimensional video analysis to compare spatiotemporal gait parameters and joint angles at selected events using two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Key findings were a reduced walking speed, stride length, step length and a support phase in water, and step length asymmetry was higher compared to the land condition (p<0.05). At initial contact, knees and hips were more flexed during walking forward in water, whilst, ankles were more dorsiflexed during walking backward in water. At final stance, knees and ankles were more flexed during forward walking, whilst the hip was more flexed during backward walking. These results show how walking in water differs from walking on land, and provide valuable insights into the development and prescription of rehabilitation and training programs.
Many plant and animal species are closely related to the aquatic environment. Small reservoirs are a place of the biodiversity concentration. Reservoirs are especially important for amphibian species as a place of feeding, shelter and wintering. Many anthropogenic factors has a significant impact on the natural values of water reservoirs (surroundings of the water reservoirs, the shore`s type, distance from roads and buildings, the role of the object and the chemical status). They can eliminate or change amphibian population. The effect of three such factors was determined for one of the cities in the Upper Silesian Agglomeration - Sosnowiec (91 km2). The paper presents an assessment of the impact of the type of surroundings, the percentage share of the open space around water reservoirs and the distance from roads and buildings on the number of amphibian species present in the reservoir. In the analysis were taken into account 20 reservoirs, in which amphibian species were found. This analysis indicates the influence urban factors on the number of amphibian species in water reservoirs based on positive correlations in the case of Spearman Rank correlation and the Fisher’s exact test. Results of these calculations highlight the negative impact of the anthropopressure (the changes in the environment) on the amphibian breeding places and the biodiversity.
Pharmaceuticals are long-lasting, biologically active substances that, when discharged into the natural environment, affect ecosystem stability. The presence of increasing amounts of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products in the environment has been a subject of growing interest. Many of the commonly used pharmaceuticals, especially analgesics and antibiotics, are used in quantities similar to those of agricultural chemicals, but are not required to undergo the same level of environmental risk assessment. The fate and behavior of medicines in the environment require further research. Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are distributed in the environment in various ways. The incidence of medicines and their transformation products has been so far recorded in surface and ground waters, drinking water, bottom sediments, soils, wastewater and sewage sludge, as well as in animal organisms. The article presents issues related to the fate and behavior of pharmaceuticals both in the environment and in the processes of wastewater treatment, ecotoxicology and risk assessment.
This paper presents results of speciation analysis of bottom sediments. In our examinations a five-step extraction procedure was applied. Direct analysis of sediments and analysis of extracts was carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with wavelength dispersion. Examinations were carried out with the use of lake sediments CRM.
The abundance of microplastics (MP) in the aquatic environment is increasingly disturbing for maritime countries, especially Indonesia, because it has the potential to threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. This review summarized and discussed the distribution of MP abundance in Indonesian aquatic ecosystems which concluded that rivers, bays and estuaries, beaches, seas, and even fish and shellfish have been contaminated. The highest contamination of MP was found in the waters of Jakarta, West Java, and East Java, which are densely populated areas. The potential threat of exposure and accumulation of MP to human health was also discussed. However, differences in the methods and units of measurement for MP as well as limited information regarding the interaction of MP with human organ functions are weaknesses in this review. The future research on the relationship between food and feeding habits of the community around contaminated waters with the accumulation of MP in the human body is needed to identify the prevention and treatment strategies.
Content available remote Many faces of arsenic
Arsenic (As) is a natural component of the Earth’s crust. Due to its specific properties, arsenic became e.g. the favorite poison in the 19th century in Europe, a component of an effective insecticide and herbicide in agriculture, a specific chemical weapon during World War II and a medication used to treat various diseases. The bad reputation of this element was confirmed after World War II, when arsenic-based chemical weapons were dumped on the seabed and became a potential threat to the marine ecosystem. The wide distribution of arsenic compounds in the environment necessitated the development of technologies aimed at removing arsenic from the aquatic ecosystem. This study provides a detailed overview of the occurrence, distribution and transformation of arsenic species in the aquatic environment.
Dno Zatoki Puckiej nie jest płaskie. Znajdują się tam wiele naturalnych wypłaceń i zagłębień. Część istniejących przegłębień powstało w ostatnim okresie, w wyniku działalności człowieka. Najlepiej rozpoznane wyrobiska w północnej części Zatoki Puckiej (Władysławowo, Chałupy, Kuźnica II, Kuźnica I i Jastarnia), będące przez wiele lat obiektem licznych badań naukowych, doczekały się programu naprawczego, którego pierwszy etap będzie zrealizowany w 2012 roku. Inne wyrobiska, mniej lub praktycznie nie rozpoznane, czekają na swój czas. Mając na uwadze skutki prac czerpalnych na Zatoce Puckiej, można wnioskować, że działalność górnicza prowadzona w obszarach morskich wymaga z jednej strony szczególnej staranności i podejścia ostrożnościowego, zaś z drugiej przemyślanych decyzji, uwzględniających aspekty ekologiczne. Potencjalne zyski z tego typu działalności mogą nie pokryć kosztów koniecznych działań naprawczych.
Bathymetry of the sea bottom in the Puck Bay is heterogeneous. There are a lot of natural shal-lows and depressions. Some of the depressions have been created recently as a result of human activity. The most thoroughly investigated post-dredging pits (Władysławowo, Chałupy, Kuźnica II, Kuźnica I i Jastarnia), located in the northern part of the Puck Bay, have been the aim of numerous studies. Consequently, restoration programs have been elaborated and are planned to be implemented in 2012. The other post-dredging pits in the Puck Bay, studied less thoroughly or not at all, are waiting for their turn. Taking into consideration the effects of dredging work in the Puck Bay, one may conclude that dredging activities in the marine areas require special caution approach and well-thought out decisions including ecological aspects as well. Potential profits gaining form that kind of activity might not cover all costs borne during restoration work.
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