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Morbidity of obesity-related diseases tends to increase due to a rise in the body mass index (BMI). We aimed to investigate how the body composition and biochemical parameters change while BMI increases in adult women were categorized as so: as normal weight, overweight and obese. Our objectives are to study the effects of those changes in the development of metabolic disturbances and to find out which parameters are the most sensitive to predict cardiometabolic risks. Three hundred and twenty two records of adult women (mean age: 38.62±12.71 year) who admitted to our unit concerning about losing or preserving their weights, were analyzed in the study. All patients had undergone anthropometric measurements and body composition analyses as well as some biochemical tests. Body composition analyses were performed by means of the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA). Increase in BMI significantly increased the body fat, blood sugar, insulin, triglyceride and uric acid levels. BMI and circumference of the waist were significantly and negatively correlated with the ratio of body water and lean mass/fat mass. However they were positively correlated with the ratio of fat mass and basal metabolism. Furthermore, it was also found that BMI and circumference of the waist were significantly and positively correlated with level of fasting blood sugar, insulin, triglyceride, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), uric acid and fibrinogen levels, and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level. In multiple regression analyses, circumference of waist measurements was significantly correlated with insulin, triglyseride and HDL, whereas the correlation between BMI and these parameters was not found significant. Total body fat mass (as %) showed significant correlation only with HDL-C level. It could be said that obesity which is a disorder that causes many health complications and affects the quality of life in the short and long term could be prevented or cured by keeping negative environmental conditions under control. According to our results, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measurement was thought to be more related for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders rather than BMI. We also propose to test fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, HDL, fibrinogen, homocystein (HOM) levels along with VAT measurements to predict more truly about not only global cardiometabolic risk but also dementia in later life.
To provide instruction for pregnant women regarding adequate and balanced nutrition and determine whether iron and folic acid supplementation is essential. The research was an experimental clinical intervention. The study was conducted between March 2004 and May 2005 with 80 pregnant volunteers. The study participants were in their 16th to 24th weeks of pregnancy; all participants were healthy, carried only one fetus, and successfully completed their pregnancy. All participants were instructed about adequate and balanced nutrition. Until the participants gave birth, 40 (Group 1) consumed an iron-rich diet that was equivalent to the inclusion of a supplement containing 100 mg Ferro III plus 0,35 mg folic acid; the other group (Group 2) was also instructed in proper nutrition and was given by a gynecologist 1 tablet (100 mg) Ferro III hydroxide polymaltose complex and iron pharmaceutical with 0,35 mg folic acid (Maltofer Fol). In both groups, before and after the instruction, consumption frequency was noted, and the levels of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in the blood were determined at monthly intervals. Between the two groups, no statistical difference was found with regard to age, number of pregnancies, weight before pregnancy, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, and weight of the newborn (p>0,05). At the end of the study, the hemoglobin, hematocrit, and serum ferritin levels decreased considerably in both groups compared to the initial values (p<0.01). No statistically significant difference in serum ferritin levels could be found between the two groups (p>0,05). The comparison of Group I and Group II in terms of nutritional status (average energy and food consumption) in the pre-instruction and post-instruction periods revealed that intake of total protein, heme protein, dietary fiber, folic acid, carotene, vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, and B12, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc was higher in Group I in the post-instruction period (p=0.000); no statistically significant change in nutritional status during pregnancy was observed in Group II. Conclusion: Medical diet programs with iron sources are examined in association with food consumption. Assessment of hematological results suggests that, during pregnancy, each patient should receive a specific dose, rather than a routine dose, of iron and folic acid.
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