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The aim of this review article is to describe Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), summarize the basic findings and discuss possible implications for educational policy in the Czech Republic. We also discuss to what extent results from PIAAC complement empirical evidence from PISA, TIMSS and similar students’ assessments. We ask whether (and what) PIAAC reveals beyond these research projects. The article starts with a description of PIAAC methodology and it basic features. Second, we describe the results of the Czech population vis-à-vis other countries involved in the assessment. Third, we focus upon several core findings of PIAAC. In the final part we discuss implications of the findings for educational policy in the Czech Republic. PIAAC has confirmed several findings revealed in PISA and TIMSS, e.g. strong impact of socio-economic background upon students’ performance. Other findings, however, rather contradicted PISA and TIMSS. For instance, it was found that the results of Czechs aged 16–25 (which were under the international average in PISA and TIMSS) are above the average. PIAAC has been found to be unique and indispensable source of information, complementing students’ assessments. Although results in PISA and TIMSS are usually taken as a final and definitive indicator of the country’s stock of human capital, PIAAC has clearly demonstrated that at the age of 15 the competencies are far from definitely formed.
Educational effectiveness research shows that teacher beliefs influence how teachers interact with students and thus affect not only the quality of their instruction but also students’ learning outcomes. A teacher’s interpersonal relationship styles, supportiveness, and mind set with regard to all students’ abilities to succeed were found to be predictive not only of students’ academic achievement, but also of non-cognitive outcomes such as engagement in school, learning motivation, or positive social development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between three non-cognitive outcomes of Czech lower secondary students in grade 9, perseverance, self-efficacy, and educational aspirations, and the attitudes of their teachers that are operationalized as academic optimism. The data set used for the analysis presented in this paper contained data from 4798 grade 9 students and 1469 teachers from 124 basic schools and 39 grammar schools that was collected in the Czech Longitudinal Study in Education in 2016. Two-level structural equation modelling is used to test the hypothesis that students’ non-cognitive outcomes are related to the academic optimism of their teachers. Academic optimism was directly related to both students’ self-efficacy and class composition according to socio-economic status. These are very important findings with respect to tracking practices in the Czech education system since they exhibit not only early tracking but also a strong differentiation within individual tracks according to socio-economic status.
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