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Early selection has been re-introduced in the Czech education system during the first years of post-socialist transformation after 1989. The same development may be observed in other countries in the region, namely in Hungary and Slovakia (earlier part of Czechoslovakia), during the re-unification of two Germanies also in 'East Germany' early tracking has been re-introduced and in Austria it has a long tradition with no interruption. Early between-school tracking as it is practiced in the Central European region already at the stage of lower-secondary education has been subject to criticism (international as well as national) and some alternative reform plans have been formulated. Nevertheless, for understanding tracking phenomena in the region we shall look at it as a result of following parent's demands and decentralization of education followed by widening school autonomy. For this reason, understanding the attitudes of different stakeholders towards early tracking is condicio sine qua non to understand this phenomenon and/or to plan further reforms. In this paper, the authors briefly present development of early tracking in the region, review the literature on the effects of early tracking on student achievement and inequality (mainly based on research from USA and England) and they also review the research till date in the region and particularly stress the research on attitudes of different stakeholders towards tracking. The main part of the text however presents results from qualitative research based on in-depth interviews with 10 teachers (5 teachers teaching in 5th grade 'basic school' and 5 teachers teaching the 6th graders at selective 'multi-year grammar school'). The analysis stress the teacher attitudes towards early tracking, their evaluations of (dis)advantages of 'multi-year grammar school', their attitudes towards and their experiences with pupils transitions to these selective schools. The testimonies of teachers from 'basic school' and selective 'multi-year grammar school' are put into contrast, where this is useful.
Educational effectiveness research shows that teacher beliefs influence how teachers interact with students and thus affect not only the quality of their instruction but also students’ learning outcomes. A teacher’s interpersonal relationship styles, supportiveness, and mind set with regard to all students’ abilities to succeed were found to be predictive not only of students’ academic achievement, but also of non-cognitive outcomes such as engagement in school, learning motivation, or positive social development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between three non-cognitive outcomes of Czech lower secondary students in grade 9, perseverance, self-efficacy, and educational aspirations, and the attitudes of their teachers that are operationalized as academic optimism. The data set used for the analysis presented in this paper contained data from 4798 grade 9 students and 1469 teachers from 124 basic schools and 39 grammar schools that was collected in the Czech Longitudinal Study in Education in 2016. Two-level structural equation modelling is used to test the hypothesis that students’ non-cognitive outcomes are related to the academic optimism of their teachers. Academic optimism was directly related to both students’ self-efficacy and class composition according to socio-economic status. These are very important findings with respect to tracking practices in the Czech education system since they exhibit not only early tracking but also a strong differentiation within individual tracks according to socio-economic status.
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