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Tematem artykułu są rozważania, które dotyczą obowiązującego w prawie karnym domniemania niewinności oraz domniemania winy, które może powstać w środkach masowego przekazu, a tym samym w opinii publicznej. Omówione zostały rozwiązania prawne w prawie karnym, prawie prasowym, prawie międzynarodowym, które mają przeciwdziałać tworzeniu fałszywego obrazu procesów. Ponadto wskazano na orzecznictwo sądowe, które stawia wymogi do rzetelnego informowania o przebiegu postępowań przygotowawczych i sądowych, a także zwrócono uwagę na szczególne obowiązki rzeczników prasowych.(abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The topic of the article are the considerations which regard the obligatory in the penal code presumption of innocence as well as the presumption of guilt, which may arise in the media thereby in the public opinion. Legal solutions in criminal law, press law and international law have been discussed to counteract the creation of a false picture of processes. In addition, judicial decisions have been pointed out, which set the requirements for reliable information on the course of preparatory and court proceedings, as well as special attention paid to spokespersons.(original abstract)
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Content available remote Okazanie jako czynność procesowo - kryminalistyczna
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Niniejszy artykuł porusza problematykę okazania jako jedną z najstarszych metod identyfikacji stosowanych na podstawie śladów pamięciowych w procesie karnym. Okazanie jest przykładem silnego powiązania procesu karnego i kryminalistyki, gdyż jest to czynność o dualnym charakterze, łącząca w sobie elementy kryminalistyczne i procesowe. Okazanie zaliczane jest do szczególnych form przesłuchania i jako czynność niepowtarzalna, wykorzystywane jest przez sąd w warunkach pośredniości. Autorzy artykułu zauważają, że uregulowania dotyczące okazania w polskiej procedurze karnej są niewystarczające pod względem zakresu, jak i precyzji unormowań. W tym stanie rzeczy upatrują przyczyny uchybień w praktyce stosowania okazania w prowadzonych postępowaniach karnych, które wpływają na pomniejszenie wartości tego dowodu w toku późniejszego rozpoznawania sprawy przez sąd. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
This article approaches the issue of identification parade as one of the oldest methods of identification based on memory-traces, in use during criminal action. Identification parade is an example of the strong connection between criminal action and criminalistics as it is a dual-character process, combining elements of criminalistics and criminal action. Identification parade is classified as a special form of cross-examination and as an unrepeatable process it is used by the court in cases of indirectness. Authors of the article point out that regulations concerning the identification parade during criminal action in Poland are insufficient not only in terms of scope, but also in terms of accuracy. It is in those facts that he seeks reasons behind the lapses in the practice of employing identification parade during criminal proceedings, which negatively influences the value of such testimony later during the cognizance of the case. (original abstract)
3
Content available remote Udzielanie pomocy organom postępowania karnego
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Artykuł omawia uprawnienie organów postępowania karnego do żądania udzielenia im pomocy, które normowane jest art. 15 § 2 i 3 k.p.k. Na jego podstawie wymienione w nim podmioty mają obowiązek udzielenia organom pomocy. Pomoc ta umożliwia organom postępowania karnego przeprowadzenie czynności procesowych. Jest zróżnicowana w zależności od tego jaką formę prawną ma podmiot, do którego organ zwrócił się z żądaniem. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The author of the article enlists various institutions of criminal proceedings. These institutions may aks natural and legal persons for help after commencing criminal proceedings. Each person is obliged to provide with assistance when they are summoned to. Demanded help enables institutions mentioned above to carry out their duties. (original abstract)
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Kategoria przestępstw przeciwko czci, ma długą tradycję w polskim ustawodawstwie karnym. Mimo pojawiających się prób ich zmiany, bądź wywodzonego przez niektórych z zasady subsydiarności prawa karnego, wyrugowania ich z ustawy karnej i zastąpienia wyłącznie przepisami natury cywilistycznej, funkcjonują one dalej spełniając swoją rolę, chroniąc immanentne dobra przynależne człowiekowi. Celem niniejszego opracowania było przedstawienie, w szczególności na wąskie ramy artykułu, krótkie scharakteryzowanie instytucji prowokacji i retorsji jako normatywnej podstawy ustawowego odstąpienia od wymierzenia kary na przykładzie występku znieważenia. Za każdym razem, obowiązkiem Sądu jest konieczność zbadania współmierności zachowań sprawców dokonywanych in concreto. Rezultatem dokonanej przez autora inferencji jest konstatacja, że koniecznym wydaje się dalsza egzystencja prowokacji i retorsji w ustawodawstwie karnym, a ewentualnie godnym rozważenia mogą być zmiany poruszone w podsumowaniu przedmiotowego opracowania.(abstrakt oryginalny)
XX
Wielość orzekanych środków karnych o tożsamym charakterze powoduje problem sposobu ich wykonywania. Możliwe i prezentowane są bowiem dwa przeciwstawne sposoby. Jeden z nich nakazuje wykonywanie tożsamych rodzajowo środków karnych sekwencyjnie, jeden po drugim, przez co w danym czasie wykonywany byłby tylko jeden z orzeczonych środków. Drugi natomiast wskazuje, że wykonanie wskazanych środków jest niezależne od siebie i biegnie od uprawomocnienia się poszczególnych orzeczeń, przez co możliwe jest wykonywanie w danym czasie więcej niż jednego tożsamego środka karnego. Zaprezentowana analiza, przeprowadzona na kanwie orzeczenia Sądu Najwyższego, wskazuje na trafność drugiego podejścia w obecnym stanie prawnym.(abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The multiplicity of adjudicated penal measures of the same nature causes the problem of the manner of their execution. Two opposite ways are possible and presented. One of them requires that penal measures of the same type be carried out sequentially, one after the other, so that only one of the imposed measures would be carried out at the same time. The second, on the other hand, indicates that the execution of the indicated measures is independent of each other and runs f rom the validation of individual judgments, which makes it possible to execute more than one identical criminal measure at the same time. The presented analysis, carried out based on the Supreme Court's judgment, shows the correctness of the second approach in the line with current law.(original abstract)
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Problematyka rozkazu wojskowego jest zagadnieniem, które na gruncie przepisów międzynarodowego prawa karnego wiąże się z szeregiem licznych zagadnień, powiązanych z reżimem odpowiedzialności dowódcy. Od czasu Trybunału Norymberskiego problematyka superior responsibility została poddana szerokim zmianom. W artykule zaprezentowano wpływ orzecznictwa Trybunału Jugosłowiańskiego na ukształtowanie się uregulowań dotyczących rozkazu wojskowego. Był to bowiem pierwszy międzynarodowy sąd, któremu przyszło się zmierzyć z tą problematyką. Na jego doświadczeniach bazował Międzynarodowy Trybunał Karny, który doprecyzował koncepcję odpowiedzialności dowódcy i uzupełnił ją o nowe komponenty.(abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The issue of military command is an issue which, under the rules of international criminal law, involves a number of numerous issues, related to the regime of commander liability. The case of Russia's armed assault on Ukraine and the questions arising in connection with the possibility of prosecuting the President of the Russian Federation, as well as military commanders - has revived the discussion on the issue of criminal liability of the main actors in these events. If the trials took place, those in leadership positions would be tried under the regime of commander's liability. Since the Nuremberg Tribunal, the issue of superior responsibility has undergone extensive changes. The article presents the influence of the jurisprudence of the Yugoslav tribunal on the formation of regulations on military command. This is because it was the first international court that had to face this issue. The International Criminal Court built on its experience, clarified the concept of commander's liability and supplemented it with new components.(original abstract)
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Content available remote Z badań nad czynnikami wpływającymi na podejmowanie decyzji o wymiarze kary
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Autorka i autor podjęli się badania dotyczącego czynników wpływających na decyzje podejmowane w postępowaniu karnym o wymiarze kary. 80 studentom - 40 psychologii oraz 40 prawa - został przedłożony opis ustaleń faktycznych w sprawie zabójstwa. Zarówno studentów psychologii, jak i studentów prawa, podzielono dodatkowo na dwie grupy po 20 osób; w grupach tych zróżnicowano opis stanu faktycznego (cechy sprawcy zabójstwa). Ponadto te same stany faktyczne przedłożono grupie 6 czynnych sędziów zawodowych. Porównano indywidualnie podejmowane decyzje przez wszystkich uczestników badania. Celem badania było ustalenie, czy rodzaj wykształcenia decydenta lub szczególne cechy sprawcy czynu wpływają na decyzje o rozmiarze kary, a także, czy są w tym zakresie różnice pomiędzy prawnikami przed aplikacją a zawodowymi sędziami. Wyniki badań były następujące. Stwierdzono istotne statystycznie różnice pomiędzy studentami psychologii i prawa odnośnie do wielkości wymierzonej kary. Średnia kara wymierzona przez studentów prawa była wyższa niż średnia kara wymierzona przez studentów psychologii. Uzasadnienia decyzji o wymiarze kar studentów psychologii i prawa również nieco się różniły. Jednakże różnice odnotowane pomiędzy studentami prawa i psychologii były mniejsze niż różnice zaistniałe pomiędzy wszystkimi studentami a sędziami zawodowymi. Średni wymiar kary w grupie sędziów był najwyższy. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The authors have conducted research on factors influencing judges decision about punishment making in criminal proceedings. In the experiment 80 subjects (40 psychology students and 40 law students) were presented with police findings about a homicide. Both psychology students and law students were divided into two supplementary groups (20 on each group) with changed elements of using police findings (concerning the same homicide). Some the perpetrator's features were changed. The sane findings were presented to 6 judges who were making decision in penal cases in real. All participants made decision about punishment individually. The authors wanted to get answers to following questions: - Does the kind of graduate study of the decision maker or particular features of the perpetrator influence decisions about punishment? The research made the following findings. There were significant differences in the average size of sentence between psychology students and law students. Declared reasons for sentences were somewhat different too. But differences between psychology students and law students are less significant than differences between all students and judges. The average sentence of judges was the most severe with the perpetrator. (original abstract)
EN
Setting the role of proportionality for punishing process of collective entities according to the acts prohibited under punishment act is major issue because of assignment of the type of liability and consequently legal guarantees. In principal, the article is attempt to answer for question how the legislature has met the requirements of the proportionality principle in relation to the process of punishment judging for collective entity. In the article, concepts of proportionality in terms of administrative and criminal law, the basis and main assumptions of proportionality rule and its reference to punishment a theory are presented. In the area of fine jurisdiction, limitations in the use of proportionality principle for collective entities taking account criminal justice are presented. Conclusions about the proportionality principle in fine judgment for collective entity referred to the Constitutional Court’s judgment of 3 November 2004, with the part of act where is the conflict between the judgment of fines with the Constitution. Due to the fact, that the substantive approach to the proportionality principle in criminal law is related to the adequacy of the penalty to the degree of guilt issues of collective ability to assign guilt were discussed in the article.
Ius Novum
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2021
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tom 15
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nr nr 4
51-72
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Artykuł 190a k.k., penalizujący przestępstwo uporczywego nękania, a także kradzieży tożsamości, wprowadzony został do polskiego Kodeksu karnego w 2011 roku. Od tego czasu w doktrynie toczą się dyskusje nad tym, czy przepis ten spełnia swoją rolę. Podejmowane są także analizy jego konstrukcji i użytych w nim znamion. W tym opracowaniu przedstawiony został krótki zarys historii funkcjonowania art. 190a w polskiej ustawie karnej, ukazujący jego pierwotne brzmienie oraz prezentujący zmiany dokonane w nim ustawą z dnia 31 marca 2020 roku. To także próba oceny wprowadzonych zmian. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
Article 190a, penalising the offense of persistent harassment and identity theft, was introduced into the Polish Penal Code in 2011. Since then, the doctrine has been discussing whether this provision fulfills its role and has been analysing its structure and its features. This article is a brief outline of the history of the functioning of Art. 190a of the Polish Penal Code, presenting its original wording, as well as amendments introduced by the Act of March 31, 2020. It is also an attempt of evaluation of introduced changes. (original abstract)
EN
This article analyzes the genesis, current state of anti-corruption legislation, its achievements, prospects and key objectives of its development. Much attention is paid to the study of anti-corruption legislation, the dialectical relationship between the correct definition, the essence of corruption and practical state measures to combat it. The effectiveness of anti-corruption measures is determined by the presence of the necessary legal framework and its effective application in practice. The Author believes that the administrative and criminal legislation of Ukraine requires improvements which take into consideration time requirements and the scale of corruption. This article has been created particularly to draw attention to the need for a normative document that would regulate various aspects of lobbying; a very common phenomenon in Ukraine. The author of this article emphasises that in the new anti-corruption legislation of Ukraine instead of the term ‘to fight’, ‘to prevent and to counteract’ have been used. Despite the fact that several acts and regulations on anti-corruption have been implemented, and various pieces of scientific research on this issue have been conducted, a commonly accepted opinion on the nature and structure of the anti-corruption mechanism has not been formed. The normative acts of Ukraine devoted to the fight against corruption describe only individual elements of the legal mechanism to counter corruption. The most complete list of such elements can be found in the Ukrainian legal acts on “On Fight against Corruption” and in some other related regulations (programmes). Having agreed that it is necessary to strengthen the position of ‘preventive and counteractive’ elements, the Author believes that the list of these elements was far from complete, which makes ​​it impossible to talk about the appropriate legal mechanisms of counteracting corruption.
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W niniejszym opracowaniu autorzy podsumowują rozważania zawarte w pierwszej części artykułu dotyczące obowiązujących w Słowacji i Czechach regulacji odnoszących się do udaremniania lub utrudniania wykonania różnego rodzaju rozstrzygnięć urzędowych, a także porównują te regulacje z rozwiązaniami polskimi oraz formułują wnioski płynące z tego porównania. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
In this study, the authors summarize the considerations contained in the first part of the article concerning the regulations in force in Slovakia and the Czech Republic relating to preventing or obstructing the execution of various official decisions, and also compare these regulations with Polish solutions and formulate conclusions resulting from this comparison. (original abstract)
EN
Criminology and criminal law are two separate scientific disciplines which are mutually helpful for each other. Criminology is a practical discipline whose most important scientific method is empirical method relying solely on the statement of facts which makes it neutral from judgements and assessments. Criminal law, in turn, belongs to the category of normative sciences where the fundamental method is the legaldogmatic method. The law is based assessment because the values adopted by law are the foundations on which moral and public order are built. As criminology and criminal law possess common research areas, criminology can serve as an auxiliary discipline for criminal law and was treated as such already at the dawn of its existence in the 19th century when it was believed that empirical sciences were to reform and improve social reality. Criminology derives from criminal law legal definitions pertaining to types of crimes and referring to their legal shape, whereas the legislation of criminal law which is grounded in reality and evolution judicature both require knowledge of criminology. Outcomes of criminological research are used for the purposes of criminal law which creates a bond between these two disciplines and this bond which supports their mutual co-existence. (original abstract)
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W artykule przedstawiono rozważania dotyczące przedawnienia uregulowanego w kodeksie karnym i wskazania jego następstw procesowych. Omówiono istotę i skutki przedawnienia, uzasadnienie przedawnienia oraz ukazano jego związek z polityką kryminalną państwa.
EN
Limitation periods in criminal law are known in most of the modern countries. The only exception remains a culture of common law. The limitation is also found in Polish criminal law. This legal institution was introduced without major controversies already in the first Polish Penal Code from 1932. Next codes from 1969 and 1997 supported this legal institution. What's more, we can even say that the limitation, next to rules governing liability of instigator and facilitator, has become a traditional Polish solution in scope of substantive criminal law. Despite the fact that in recent years there was quite a number of changes to the limitation periods, it is still clear that this legal institution is a very essence and its normative shape has incredible stability as for Polish conditions. For many years, the limitation has remained outside the mainstream interests in the doctrine of criminal law. For the first time the statutory limitation has become the object of a wider interest of the literature, several years after World War II. This was associated with the problem of ending of limitation periods in cases of Nazi crimes. That time resulted in, for example, enactment of the Law of 22 April 1964 on the suspension of limitation periods in relation to the perpetrators of the worst Nazi crimes and what mobilized other countries to adopt a Convention on the Non-Statutory Limitation to War Crimes and Crimes against humanity. Unfortunately, in later years issues associated with the limitation appeared sporadically in the literature, and even if they were already present there, it was generally linked only with the limitation periods. The purpose of this article is to describe the statutory limitation present in the Polish criminal law. The article consists of four parts. The first part contains the preliminary issues, which are supposed to introduce the reader to the above-mentioned theme, in particular to the limitation occurring on the ground of the Polish Constitution from 1997. The second part refers to the nature and consequences of the limitations, which are unique for the criminal law, because the limitation makes impossible to impose a penalty on the offender after a certain period of time. Another part of this work concerns justification of the existence of limitation in criminal law. Although there are many theories on this subject in the science of criminal law, there is no justification of limitation which would be widely accepted. The subject of the last part of the article are criminal-political significance of limitation and its functioning in the practice of judiciary. (original abstract)
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Na gruncie polskiej teorii prawa karnego na początku XX w. przedstawicielami kierunku socjologicznego byli m.in. J. Makarewicz, W. Makowski, S. Wróblewski oraz A. Mogilnicki. (...) Temat niniejszego opracowania to: pojęcie kary, jej cel, indywidualizacja, zasady orzekania. Stanowiło to przedmiot zainteresowań Mogilnickiego w ciągu wielu lat pracy naukowej. W związku z dużą ilością materiałów źródłowych niniejsze opracowanie dotyczyć będzie okresu od 1897 r. do 1919 r., kiedy to Mogielnicki został powołany w skład Komisji Kodyfikacyjnej II RP. (fragment tekstu)
EN
The Italian positive and sociological school appeared in criminal law at the end of the 19th century. Those schools appeared as a result of the increase of crime in Europe, which was connected with urbanization and rapid development of industry. The influence of, particularly, sociological school could be seen in Poland at the turn of the 19th century. Among others, J. Makarewicz, W. Makowski, A. Mogilnicki were the representatives of the sociological trend on the ground of the Polish theory of criminal law. Alexander Mogilnicki's views on punishment are, as a whole, included in the sociological trend of the Polish criminal thought. It should be stressed that Mogilnicki was one of the first to introduce the assumptions of the sociological trend into Poland. An individual offender became the centre of consideration. Due to the fact that the rule of the appropriateness of punishment came to the force, Mogilnicki divided offenders into three groups. The first group comprises habitual criminals (criminals from habit). They grow up in the environment where crimes are the ordinary nature of life, while imprisonment teaches them new techniques of committing crimes. However, if this young criminal changed his environment, he could give up committing crimes and start leading an honest life. The second group includes people living in a healthy environment. A criminal offence is an isolated act. They are called episodic criminals. Unlike the previous group, they should not be improved. Obviously, they should be punished because they committed a criminal offence. Their punishment will function as a deterrent that will aim at preventing other people from committing crimes. The third group comprises criminals who cannot be improved by any means. They are professional, incorrigible criminals. Their imprisonment is the only way of preventing them from committing crimes and of deterring them from doing harm to society. They should be isolated as long as they stop being harmful to society. This division of criminals shows the means to decrease the number of crimes, i.e. improvement, deterrent, or elimination of a criminal. The individualization of punishment was strictly connected with its appropriateness. The aim of punishment was not repression but the influence on criminal's personality and his future conduct. The rule of appropriateness of punishment, i.e. deterring a criminal from committing a crime again, should be realized by a particular sentence, taking into consideration, mainly, criminal's personality. A fight against crime should be based on individual prevention. Mogilnicki consequently presented his views on the appropriateness of punishment, stressing the significance of the fact that punishment should be deprived of revenge. The main characteristic feature of all his work is unusual reaction to any deficiency of criminal legislation, to anything that was unjust from his point of view. (original abstract)
EN
The article presents the evaluation of criminal law provisions on the property confiscation as another measure of criminal law. An insufficient study in abolishing the regulations of property confiscation led to the situation when the Russian Federation violated several international agreements by which it is obliged to apply the forfeiture of property to persons who have committed crimes of various types. Over the last twenty years, confiscation was again and again subjected changes and amendments, which indicates a lack of elaboration of the provisions on confiscation, and the problems that arose due to this in law enforcement.The authors represent various types of this punishment: the confiscation as “another measure” of criminal law, the confiscation as a form of punishment, and a special confiscation (forfeiture of guns, equipment or other instrumentalities of crime).A positive aspect of confiscation, the authors consider to be the possibility to confiscate not only money, valuables and other property obtained as a result of confiscatory crimes, but also money, valuables and other property in which property and income gained from this property have been partially or completely transformed or converted. This provision was enshrined in the criminal law for the first time and fully complies with the regulations embodied in the Conventions mentioned in the article.In particular, it is concluded that the restoration of confiscation in Criminal Code is a positive step as it allows to deal effectively with crime, especially in its organized forms. However, the existing regulations of confiscation are not without some drawbacks.
EN
Breaking of the internal unity of organized criminal groups constitutes the principal condition for effectiveness of judicature bodies in fighting the phenomenon of organized crime. The difficulties concerning these activities arise from the great solidarity and mutual loyalty bond among the offenders. In view of the situation it is crucial for certain legal mechanisms to function efficiently in order to enable the breaking of the chain of criminal solidarity by encouraging the members of organized groups or criminal bonds to withdraw from their participation and disclose the circumstances of committed prohibited acts before the law enforcement authorities. The legislator, aware of the degree of threat for the public security brought by the organized crime, provides for the statutory incentive for abandoning the path of criminal lawlessness by the members of criminal groups, including the said clause of exemption from penalty under article 259 of the Penal Code. Obviously, this paper does not aspire to be regarded as complete study of the issue of exemption from penalty under the article specified herein, thus all presented comments shall concentrate in principal on three main problems which are as follows: (1) the issue of establishing the statutory condition subject to the structure of the legal norm provided for in the said provision, (2) attempts to establish the nature of the act in question in view of the feature of “disclosed all relevant circumstances”, finally (3) interpretation of the condition of “voluntariness” in withdrawal from participation in the organized group or bond.
EN
This article is devoted to the problem of reforming Ukrainian legislation in accordance with the European principles of humanization and mitigation of criminal liability. Since the principle of supremacy of the law acts and is admitted in Ukraine, and the Constitution of Ukraine has supreme legal validity, laws and other normative legal acts have no retrospective effect, except those which mitigate or eliminate liability of a person accused of committing a crime. Amendments to the Criminal and Criminal Procedural Codes of Ukraine of 2008have proscribed that after a person has committed a сriminal act, and the Law on Criminal Liability was changed several times, the law eliminating the criminality of that act, mitigating criminal liability or improving a person’s position has a retrospective effect. In this regard, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine has to interpret some basic questions, such as: whether punishment in the form of life imprisonment can be applied to persons who have committed a criminal act for which until March, 29, 2000, the Criminal Code of Ukraine proscribed the possibility of the death penalty; and whether life imprisonment is a new kind of punishment or is a replacement of one kind of punishment with another one – in this case, the death penalty with life imprisonment. The author proves that the Criminal Code of Ukraine, with some modifications concerning mitigation of criminal liability, should be considered as a new criminal code. According to the legal position of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, for persons who committed crimes, for which the possibility of the death penalty was proscribed until March 29, 2000, the punishment of the life imprisonment may be applied.
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In recent years interest in the functioning of the judicial guardianship departments has been growing. This initiated the need to study all dimensions of guardians' work. Guardianship as a specific measure of reclamation aimed at the transformation of wards' behaviours, is facing new challenges which are the result of the changes in our country. At present a guardian as a person executing the court judgement largely takes the blame for his/her own initiatives and omissions, but also for the court which issued the verdict as well as general social or economic conditions in the country. The objective of this work is to present the results of the questioning conducted by the Office of the Human Rights Defender and the Institute of Justice in relation to the reported Guardians targets. Particular attention, on the background of the whole of the institution presented, has been attributed to the meaning of media which through prudent conducting of probation promotion should form the basis for a rational assessment of the social work of the guardians.
20
Content available remote Kodeks postępowania Międzynarodowego Trybunału Karnego
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Omówiono drugą sesję Komisji Przygotowawczej Międzynarodowego Trybunału Karnego (MTK), organu utworzonego na mocy Rezolucji F przyjętej na zakończenie Konferencji Dyplomatycznej w Sprawie Powołania Międzynarodowego Trybunału Karnego w Rzymie w lipcu 1998 r.
EN
The second session of the International Criminal Court Preparatory Commission has been discussed. The body has been established on the basis of the F Resolution adopted at the concluding part of the Diplomatic Conference on the establishment of the International Criminal Court in Rome in July 1998. In this session the Commission's work focused mainly on the two documents essential for the functioning of the Court i.e. 'a definition of crime and its components', and 'rules of trial and evidence procedures'.(JW)
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