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EN
The paper examines the relationship between the philosophy of F. Nietzsche and transhumanist philosophy. Transhumanism is the branch of thought arguing in favour of human transformation (post-human). Thus, it might seem, that it is derived from the classical idea of the transformation of the man, its goal being a superman (der Übermensch) found in Nietzschean philosophy. However, transhumanism points to five problems in Nietzsche's project. It rejects Nietzschean anti scientific, anti progressive, anti moral and anti social ideas as well as his destructive way of creating the superman. The paper argues that the four objections presented by transhumanists against Nietzsche are ill-founded, while the last one is valid.
EN
The paper examines the possibilities of friendship in transhumanist ideas of society of posthumans. Some transhumanists claim that human enhancement through technologies will also lead to a better and more cohesive society. The presented article challenges this claim by showing that transhumanist theories rather omit the social aspects of humans and their expectations about posthuman society are not really convincing. In the article, I focus on a specific type of transhumanism – so called extropianism, which emphasizes individual’s own responsibility, autonomy and motivation for self-improvement. The article itself is divided into three parts. In the first part I present extropianist ideas of posthuman as a result of human enhancement. In the second part I think about those ideas in the context of the whole society of posthumans. The third part focuses on friendship as a phenomenon that can bring individuals close together and increase the degree of solidarity and cooperation. I consider the possibilities of existence of such relationship in a future society of posthumans.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2015
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tom 70
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nr 5
367 – 377
EN
The paper sheds light on the idea of uploading persons. Trans-humanists defend the possibility of uploading persons. However, this might lead to substantial dualism of a person and its substrate. Dualism contradicts other trans-humanist philosophical presuppositions so, the trans-humanist theory as a whole could be contradictory. The problem of dualism can be eliminated by introducing the concept of emulation. Thus the concept of emulation could resolve the aforementioned contradiction in the trans-humanist theory. On the other hand, the drawback of the concept of emulation could be a threat to personal identity. Hence, the main task of transhumanism is not to tackle the problem of person but rather that of personal identity.
EN
In this article we report on and discuss our initial insights from a media analysis, whose goal was to map media discourses around human enhancement and transhuman technologies in the Slovak media. The main timeframe for material collection was 2009-2013. We conducted a search of the Slovak Press Agency (SITA) media outputs database, using thematically chosen keywords. Based on a critical discursive analysis of the material collected, we suggest that three basic discourses (with several subvariations) can be found in the Slovak press: A) Transhuman technologies and the survival of humans as a species; B) Transhuman technologies and superhumans; C) Transhuman technologies and changes in basic human nature (with consequences for ethics, morals and religions). We decided to concentrate on the closely related, intertwined discourses A and B. We included all the kinds of media targeting the general public because we were interested in the whole spectrum of potentially different ‘renderings’ of the topic aimed at all possible audiences. However, the differences found were smaller than expected. Our findings do not indicate that certain kinds of media (according to ‘seriousness’ or preferred themes) favour a specific presentation of transhuman topics, nor that they favour some discourses and completely ignore others. But we did find an appalling lack of any critical discussion from different morally anchored perspectives that would provide specific answers to dilemmas around prohibiting / regulating some technologies, at the national or international level, which are already partly relevant now and may become extremely relevant in the near future.
5
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EN
The prerequisites for transhumanist visions can be identified on anthropological, social, scientific, and technological levels. But one cannot neglect science-fiction literature, which provides transhumanism with inspiration and literary imagery. This article focuses on three selected motifs in the well-known Foundation series by Isaac Asimov, which discusses in relation to ideas of transhumanism. In the first part, the article highlights the visionary and subversive character of these works and seeks similar traits in transhumanism. The second part discusses big data analysis, which is an important component of literary storytelling and which fuels the development of artificial intelligence, which, according to transhumanists, will lead to the creation of superintelligence. The third motif is the confrontation with beings that possess superhuman abilities, something both Asimov’s work and transhumanist visions deal with and which opens up questions about coexistence with those who are unlike us. Literary and transhumanist visions have multiple parallels and encourage deeper social, ethical, and anthropological analyses of important topics.
6
75%
EN
Post-humanist visions of the future do not venture further ahead than a few hundred or a few thousand years at most. It is within this near future that most scenarios of technological singularity and the enhancement of the human into an H+, or a post-human, are projected. This paper reflects on visions of much more distant futures found in evolutionary speculative fiction and science fiction, from J.B.S. Haldane (1927) through to Adrian Tchaikovsky (2019). From the vantage point of thousands (or millions) of years, the forthcoming era of mind uploading, designer babies, and technological immortality as envisioned in the transhumanist utopias of Hans Moravec amount to short episodes in a long cycle of evolutionary progress matched by planetary catastrophes. Such a perspective offers a more general reflection on the philosophical and cultural implications of a “creative evolution”, the nature of humanity, and humans’ place among other species. The transhumanism agenda, initiated by Julian Huxley in the form of a call to arms for the “betterment of humanity” by existing, emerging, and speculative technologies, does not emerge as a retrograde reinstatement of the compromised ideals of Enlightenment, but rather as the sine qua non for human survival in the face of the heat death of the Sun, the eruption of a super-volcano, and any other existential risk. Human ingenuity, reflected in advanced biotechnology, space travel and technological enhancements turns out to be the only guarantee of life on Earth and beyond it. As such, this comparative study of literary examples of possible courses of human history proves that reflections on the far future are capable of healing current discursive divides between post-humanist and transhumanist, anthropocentric and anti-anthropocentric, and technophobic and technophile approaches to our present.
EN
The author presents the current context and key issues connected with the trans-humanist idea of human enhancement. He argues that from the philosophical point of view human enhancement is the continuation of the ancient ideas of human perfection and perfectionism. These ideas, when taken abstractedly, separated from other ethical ideas such as happiness, dignity, self-care and self-control, might lead to problematic consequences. Further, the paper gives an account of pragmatist philosophical humanism which at some points may look as a precursor of transhumanism or its close ally. However, the author’s conclusion is that pragmatist humanism while supporting „transformism“ keeps in mind the meaning of human endeavours which it sees in good life and good society rather than in radical enhancement of human biological nature via technology.
8
Content available remote Estetyka technociał.
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PL
The article Aesthetics of the Techno-bodies deals with the cultural and contextual complexity of the modern and postmodern figure of the cyborg, or rather the human relation to technology. The main problem is the formulation of the scope of the aesthetics of techno-bodies or aesthetic of artificial bodies. It is a contribution to a more extensive problem concerning the aesthetic, condition and possibilities of development of contemporary human who enters more and more intensively and further and further into the postbiological era. In the article I am analysing four artistic works: 1. “Das schöne Mädchen” (Beautiful Girl) by Hannah Höch; “Tête Méchanique” (Mechanical head) by Raul Hausmann; “All You Zombies: Truth before God” by Roberd Long; Cyborg by Lynn Randolph. Analysis of these artworks is used to show different ideological and aesthetic approaches towards techno-bodies.
EN
This paper is focused on an analysis of Josef Čapek ’s notion of technology and his scrutiny of the conflicting nature of the avant-garde movement of Futurism in relation to the contemporary assumptions of the processual philosophies of transhumanism and post-humanism. The analysis is reconstructed in the narrative setting of the technological and methodological hybridization of the categories of the human and post-human (Homo artefactus) and is inspired by Josef Čapek’s approach to a specific philosophical question: Why would anyone want to create a post-human, a “robot Picasso”? It is argued that Josef Čapek projected that some of the motivational assumptions about the creation of post-humans would be built upon the inconsistent stigmatization of the human by humans that envy the hypothetical superiority of post-humans (i.e., Promethean shame).
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