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1
Content available remote Ks. prof. zw. dr hab. Andrzej Pankowicz (13 kwietnia 1950-1 lutego 2011)
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Scientific interests Professor Pankowicza centered around several parallel research areas located within the historical sciences and cultural studies. Areas of his research in terms of chronological-rem included world history and Polish nineteenth-twentieth century, social and cultural aspects of self- social in history from antiquity to modern times, history of Christianity with particular emphasis on cultural aspects, history and theory of cultural studies research and implantation of the research in this area methodologies of other humanities.
Slavica Slovaca
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2021
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tom 56
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nr 3
448 - 461
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The Slavic literature has preserved a specific moment from the officialization of the memories of the icon-worshipers in the Byzantine literature. Due to the fact that they reflect an older, pre-Metaphrasic composition of the emerging Byzantine Chetimine literature, they offer earlier and close to the Iconoclastic era texts that have disappeared almost completely in Byzantine literature, in which the Metaphrastic edition has dominated since the tenth century. These Slavic translations give a more reliable idea of the events that took place, offer in a more authentic and non-heroic and mythologized form the way of life of real historical figures.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2022
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tom 77
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nr 8
641 – 654
EN
The paper explores Kierkegaardʼs involvement in politics. The Danish thinker offers a very peculiar and sophisticated path to Christianity for individuals. For him, ethical and religious, especially Christian strivings of an individual, is of utmost importance. Politics, on the other hand, should remain a limited domain of finite problems and practical solutions. Kierkegaard finally suggested radical institutional changes against mésalliance of the state and the church that should have opened the way for a free choice of Christian faith as a commitment. The overall spectrum of Kierkegaardʼs suggestions and virtues does not shape a coherent policy agenda, nevertheless the author offers beneficial incentives to politicians and politics. Kierkegaard's original thinking, his artistic, intellectual, and spiritual legacy, despite its shortcomings, radiates a powerful appeal and shows rather an indirect political impact.
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In the 20th century many artists have created both artworks for religious purposes and commissioned by the church as well as works depicting Christian motifs or influenced by them but not directly intended for display in sacred premises. Classical examples reveal the significance of this subject and motifs in modernists' works; a growing interest in this field is evident since the 1980s. From the viewpoint of means and messages these artworks are of the widest possible scope - from decorative compositions to openly shocking works that have created wide-range scandals and made to discuss the current value judgements. Interpretations of Christian motifs, including those considered heretic and blasphemous by the church authorities, have been most influential in culture products like visual arts, literature, theatre, cinema, music; they are used many times as allegorical references to stress topical themes or problematic issues and values. Such works that have earned excellent reputation or are highly popular and recognised in the cultural context, have often been criticised by the church and traditionally oriented Christians mainly because of violating Christian canons and important principles of Christian iconography or way of expression. In Latvia the most interesting reflections on Christianity in contemporary art are related to the sacred space where the basic tenets of Christian canon and message are respected, transgressing the accepted boundaries of expression and creativity. The most widely known precedents are Sarmite Malina's and Kristaps Kalns' video installation 'Altarpiece' at St. Mary Magdalene's Catholic Church in Riga in Easter 2006, and Helena Heinrihsone's altarpiece for the Kolka Lutheran Church painted in 1993. Assuming that tradition has a special authority in sacred art, Catholic Church strongly holds to the idea that a Christian artist's point of reference could not be contemporary culture. Compared to the traditional attitude of the Catholic Church, Protestant sacred art is more intellectualised and visually abstracted. The issue of 'images' is also the most complex issue not just in the crossing of art and church but also inside the church, being the cause of disagreements and diverging opinions of different confessions.
EN
This paper opens up the question of corporeality and materiality in Christian religion. In the introduction I present the basic relation of Christianity to the Hellenic culture, where the first concepts of theological thinking and spiritual dictionaries were born. Waves of dualistic spiritual tendencies have often been rising since the first centuries, always corrected by the searching for a balanced perception of the relationship between spiritual and corporal. The remaining sections of the article offer a rehabilitation of materiality and corporality, a striving that has been occurring permanently in the history of the entire theological tradition. Small subtemes are a reference to and support for the "body", viewed not as a prison, but as a place where the spirit expresses itself.
EN
Light and darkness were central motives in the Bible and in the Platonic tradition (Plato, Plotinus, Proclos). First and foremost light was the essential element and the basic principle of existence and cognition in the philosophy of Pseudo-Dionysius Aeropagite. His metaphysics of light contained imagery that inspired builders of French cathedrals and provided Christian thought with rich presuppositions and themes. The main purpose of the article is to highlight the gnostic aspect of the reflection on light in the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius. The author of the 'Divine names' speaks of light in a figurative sense and compares its physical properties to the process of transmission of knowledge. He uses the term 'light' to describe the actualising powers of God or God's sovereignty over the world that he identifies with goodness. This goodness is also described as 'supersubstantial light' which as a transcendent Unity permits divine intellects to partake of the supreme knowledge about themselves. Thus light is shown as essential to the transmission of knowledge. It constitutes the process of enlightenment and supports the hierarchical process of transmission of knowledge. Assuming that this is a correct reading of Pseudo-Dionysius Aeropagite the authors conclude that contrary to the predominant interpretation his philosophy Pseudo-Dionysius did not describe emanations of beings but transmission of knowledge. Which in turn indicates that he developed his theory as part of Christian philosophy rather than neoplatonic thought.
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Content available remote Rodina a rodičovství v křesťanství a islámu
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EN
In contemporary societies religion has still a great influence on the culture and the way of organizing social life. Consequently family, its structure, norms, functions and roles are determined by the religion and its values. The paper presents the role of marriage in the Christian and Islamic societies. Whereas for Christians the celibate plays a key role as it is seen as the most desirable way of life, Islam religion does not recommend the state of womanlessness. However, the status of women in both Christian and Muslim families is shaped by patriarchal attitudes rooted in the social values. The authoress discusses pre-marital institution, e. g. an institution of 'mahr' - a gift of money or valuables given by the bride's family to that of the groom to permit their marriage which serves aftewards as a private savings of the wife in the case of divorce. Furthermore, she compares ways of upbringing of children and attitudes to divorce in both religions. Finally, she considers both religions similar in their concept of family due to their common judaic origin. (http://www.genderonline.cz/view.php?cisloclanku=2005120101)
EN
The unique round silver pendant with the motif of either an angel or an orant or a saint most probably comes from the polycultural settlement in the cadastre of Tatce, Kolín distr., in the fertile Elbe River region in central Bohemia. It was found in 2012. The pendant can be unequivocally interpreted as a Christian protective amulet. The finding broadens the range of items connected to the earliest Christianity in Bohemia during the 2nd half of 9th – 11th c.
EN
This article deals with how university pastoral communication can be realized. University pastoral as compassion means to put the people in the center. Years ago, the world-famous professor of fundamental theology, Johannes Baptist Metz, the founder of political theology, made a statement in the feature page supplement of the Süddeutsche Zeitung with the article „With the authority of the suffering - compassion - proposal for a world program of Christianity“. More compassion is needed in our times, he demanded. Compassion says that the difficult situation of another person does not leave me indifferent, but rather challenges me to act. In her groundbreaking first work, “Know the Ways”, Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179), describes in what unbelievable creation man finds him. Even more, how God is on the way to people and man experiences himself as a human being while on the way to God. This may be further thought of as an assignment that people are on the way to people. In terms of its approach, pastoral care can be communicative, mystagogical, person-centered, charitable-diaconal, systemic, intercultural-interreligious. Any decision for a corresponding concept means a decision for profiling. University pastoral of compassion means that practical theological action with vivacity – Viriditas - as a program and the turn of mercy determine the everyday university pastoral action.
EN
In this article I discuss the contribution to Christian thought by one of the most original Catholic theologians of the secondhalf of the 20th century, the late Johann Baptist Metz. I am seeking to highlight four main axes that are widely present in Metz`s thought. My aim is also to show how these axes are still present in modern Christian theology. To achieve these objectives, I briefly discuss a) Metz`s christology as it bears on b) his debate of human historicity. I further discuss c) Metz`s call for a ‘radicality’ of Christianity. All these dimensions of his thought are relevant for a heuristic d) rethinking of the issue of hope and its challenges for future Christian mission in and for the world.
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Content available remote Jakub Deml's 'Zapomenuté svetlo' (Forgotten Light)
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EN
Interpretation of Jakub Deml's 'Zapomenuté svetlo'.
EN
The 1930s was an extraordinarily complex period in Czechoslovakia. The economic crisis contributed to the new escalation of the nationality problem. The discontented regions also included Slovakia, where the people had reservations towards the ideology of the state “Czechoslovak nation”. A basic factor was also the conservative inclinations of the Slovak people and the associated influence of Christianity. The government endeavoured to use this in favour of Czechoslovak unity, since according to the knowledge of the time, 1933 would be the 1100th anniversary of the consecration of the first Christian church in the territory of Czechoslovakia. However, the defenders of Slovak national aspirations also attempted to use Prince Pribina’s historic act in their favour. The supporters of the two camps came into conflict on the main day of the so-called Pribina celebrations, and this influenced the later perception of the whole event. However, it was a distorted picture because the anniversary was celebrated over several months. Emphasis on the antiquity and cultural maturity of Slovakia predominated during most of the associated events.
EN
The Donatist schism marked the entire of the 4th century of Christianity in North Africa. The Roman authoritarian methods did not help in suppressing this schism, on the contrary, they aided the church of the martyrs in the faith in its own infallibility. But Donatim was not just a spiritual movement. The violent bands of the circumcelliones carried out attacks on the Catholic Church and its representatives as a church of betrayal, along with protests against Rome and its empire, with which they identified it. After the arrival of st. Augustine as a bishop in Hippo, the Catholic Church slowly grows up and tries to begin dialogue with Donatists. The point of the effort is the Conference in Carthage 411. However, Augustine offered a path of reconciliation in his theology. He found the Donatists mistakes that led them away from true humility and reconciliation in the community of Catholica.
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The 'discovery' of time and history is not, according to the author, the invention of modern times. It was Christianity, which in opposition to ancient thought, had made a valorization of time and historical becoming. In the contemporary treatises and papers on the Christian philosophy of history appear old Christian antynomies, such as the antynomy between some 'autonomy' of secular history and its total integration into the history of salvation.
EN
The paper first depictures the hell according to the traditional doctrines of churches as a place of eternal reprobation. Then it points out that many contemporary Christian believers question the doctrine of eternal tortures to be in accordance with the unconditioned divine love, proclaimed by Jesus of the Gospels. The author's question is: What was the role the ideas of the hell, included also into the New Testament (mainly under the influence of Enoch) played for Jesus himself? His answer is as follows: The Christians have no reason to take the ideas of the hell, widespread in Jesus' time, as a Revelation, even not if Jesus himself would have shared them. They were nothing more than the ideas resulting from the prevailing picture of the ancient world. Jesus did not teach the doctrine of the hell, he instead showed the people the true way of life. According to the author we should accept the Nietzschean critique of Christianity. This critique might lead us to the rediscovery of God as a totality of our possibilities.
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In presenting a somber image of Russia in his 'Philosophical letter' and in solutions he offered, Chaadaev was motivated by the idea of universal unity: spiritual unity of all nations that resulted from the idea of cosmic unity, which, in turn, resulted from the idea of a providential God, the creator of all things and caring for His creation. This idea of unity is, philosophically, the most lasting element of Chaadaev's thought and becomes a unifying intellectual framework for other Russian thinkers. The fall disturbed the unity of the universe by giving rise to spatio-temporal world and the unity has to be restored by divine intervention and human cooperation.
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The author presents the thesis assumed by most scientists that the principle of methodological naturalism is a necessary condition of science. He also shows the role of this thesis in the context of the relationship between science and religion (by religion he means here Christianity). He tries to show that contemporary science does not leave any gaps in our knowledge that would call for any supernatural or transcendent sphere of being, postulated by religion. Christianity admits events in the history of the universe in such a way that for their explanation it is necessary to appeal to supernatural agents disrupting the order of nature. If this is so, then we can claim, he argues, that contemporary science is incompatible with Christian doctrine. The author also argues that if we assume a realist interpretation of scientific theories, formed on the basis of methodological naturalism, and if we take into consideration the role of science in contemporary culture of the Western civilisation then we should consider the scientific model of realty as making atheism a more rational option.
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Content available remote C. S. LEWIS O PŘIROZENÉM MRAVNÍM ZÁKONĚ
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Studia theologica
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2011
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tom 13
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nr 4
170–184
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The study is a reaction against the subjectivism of modern ethical thinking. The author presents the ethical position of C. S. Lewis in comparison with the ITC document (2008) and reveals interesting connections between both concepts. The Natural Law is not merely a subjective matter. C. S. Lewis speaks about deep connections between the concept of the Natural Law and the Christian image of God.
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The paper focuses on the bishop´s position in his Christian community and his position within the Roman Empire, especially after Constantine's turn. The function of the bishop, his position and his powers gradually changed in the Late Antiquity, which was also reflected in the imperial legislation. To some extent, the bishops represented state authorities, especially the judicial ones, and took care of the poor and the needy. As the economic power of the Christian communities increased, the bishops became important members of the local honorability. Nevertheless, their main role remained the pastoral care and administration of the Christian community.
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Content available remote Náboženství a pohlaví: Proč jsou ženy zbožnější než muži?
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EN
This article looks at the differences in the religiosity of men and women. First, it outlines the main sociological theories that explain these differences. Afterwards, it examines the differences in the religiosity of Czech men and women in the ISSP 2008 and the DIN 2006 surveys. The analyses show that Czech women are more religious than Czech men in every measure of religiosity, but do not indicate that these differences can be explained by economic activity or social deprivation measured as a subjective assessment of social status. Some of the differences can, however, be ascribed to differences in religious socialisation in childhood.
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